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Fall of Judah - Regnal Years and Timeline

There has been alleged a seeming inconsistency: how can Jeremiah refer to Jehoiakim's 4th year while Daniel refers to Jehoiakim's 3rd year when recording the same event, namely, Nebuchadnezzar's first year?

It will be shown (in the Fall of Judah Chronology below) that the following passages are in fact consistent and in agreement regarding the dates and events reported (all cites NASB):

Jeremiah 46:2
To Egypt, concerning the army of Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt, which was by the Euphrates River at Carchemish, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon defeated in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah:

Jeremiah 25:1
The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah (that was the first year of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon),

Daniel 1:1
In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it.

New American Standard Bible, The Lockman Foundation (1995)

Jeremiah (along with Zechariah, Haggai and Ezekiel) reckoned regnal years by the accession-year system and sacred calendar years running Nisan-Adar while Daniel (along with Ezra, Nehemiah and the chronicler of Second Kings) reckoned regnal years by the accession-year system and civil calendar years running Tishri-Elul (see Regnal Year Reckoning).

Consequently, Daniel understood Jehoiakim to be in his 3rd year as king of Judah (by Tishri-accession reckoning) while Jeremiah understood Jehoiakim to be in his 4th year as king of Judah (by Nisan-accession reckoning), and both understood that Nebuchadnezzar had just become king of Babylon upon Nabopolassar's death: all three reckonings synchronize in 605 B.C. when Nebuchadnezzar defeated the Egyptian army at Carchemish and then beseiged Jerusalem. This synchronization is highlighted in the table below, in the intersection of the row 605 BC, Aug/Sep, and the sub-columns headed:

Additional background on the chronology of the last kings of Judah and reckoning the years of their reign is found in:

The table below organizes the years of Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah (kings of Judah) and Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar (kings of Babylon) as recorded by Jeremiah, the chronicler of Second Kings, and Daniel through to the final fall of Jerusalem, so as to verify that their dates are in fact consistent with each other and with the Jerusalem Chronicle (translation at livius.org) when similarity in accession-year conventions and differences in regnal-year conventions are taken into account.

Also demonstrated in the table below (highlighted in yellow) are two theoretical early 6th century B.C. synchronisms between Babylonian and Hebrew intercalation:

  1. The capture by Nebuchadnezzar on Addaru 2nd 597 B.C. of Jehoiachin (Jerusalem Chronical reverse line 11-13) who had only reigned three months (2Ki 24:8) when Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah king of Judah on Babylonian Nisanu 597 B.C. and Hebrew Nisan 3164 A.M. "at the turn of the year" (2Chron 36:10):
    1. If Babylonia weren't intercalating, Nebuchadnezzar would have marched to Jerusalem in the Babylonian month of Tebetu (rather than Kislimnu) and captured Jehoiachin in the next later month of Nisanu) .
    2. If Judah/Jerusalem weren't also intercalating (an embolismic Adar II possibly two years earlier in 599 B.C.), then Jehoiachin's three month reign from Kislev to Shevat ending early Adar (upon capture by Nebuchadnezzar) and Zedekiah's consequent and subsequent appointment by Nebuchadnezzar would be one month later in Iyar after the "turn of the year"
  2. Nebuchadnezzar's final siege of Jerusalem on the 10th month, 10th day of Zedekiah's 9th year in 588 B.C. was theoretically preceded 4 months earlier by a Hebrew intercalary month, Adar II:
    1. Jeremiah normally reckons on a Nisan regnal year (see Regnal Year Reckoning) counting 4 months from Nisan as in Jer 39:2 which reports Nebuchadnezzar's capture of Jerusalem in the 4th month of Zedekiah's 11th year (586 B.C.).
    2. However, in 588 B.C. when Nebuchadnezzar began his final siege of Jerusalem, Jeremiah counted 10 months from a Tishri regnal year (Zedekiah's 9th) to the siege beginning on the 10th month, 10th day (Jer 39:1).
    3. Jeremiah normally should have reckoned the final siege commencing in Tammuz as the 4th month of Zedekiah's 9th Nisan regnal-year instead of the 10th month of Zedekiah's Tishri regnal-year. The reported date is correct, but Jeremiah has used a different reckoning system than his usual. Why?
    4. Possibly, 4 months before the siege, an extra month Adar II may have been intercalated which consequently deferred the beginning of the Nisan regnal year by one month and postponed the Nisan festivals (there was no Adar festival of Purim in Jeremiah's time). Jeremiah (who used Nisan regnal reckoning) was held in Jerusalem at that time (Jer 38:28) and was a prophet of Judah (which used Tishri regnal reckoning). Ostensibly, if an intercalation and postponement was made, then ostensibly the determination would have come from the priests and king in Jerusalem, which was threatened with attack. Presumably, advance warning of Nebuchadnezzar's approaching army and siege train must have reached Judah and Jerusalem prior to Adar of 588 B.C. as Nebuchadnezzar's marches often began in the earlier Babylonian months of Kislimnu or Tebetu.
    5. Possibly Nebuchadnezzar's approaching army precluded the priests in Jerusalem from confirming an intercalation of Adar II, or Jeremiah being held first in a cistern and then in the court of the guardhouse (Jer 38) prevented Jeremiah from knowing. Jeremiah seemed to be recording events contemporaneously, and lacking official confirmation of whether the Nisan sacred calendar year (and hence the Nisan regnal year) was postponed, Jeremiah used Tishri reckoning instead when recording Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Jerusalem in Jer 39:1.

    However, it must be pointed out that an intercalated Adar II in 588 B.C. is hypothetical. Though, if Jeremiah had no confirmed intercalary postponement of the Nisan calendar year, he would have to change reckoning systems for that one single verse and event recorded in Jer 39:1 and instead use the Tishri reckoning system of his immediate surrounds. This is clearly speculative and inconclusive, but Jeremiah's anomalous switch from reckoning on the sacred calendar year to the civil for one verse warrants further examination.

Fall of Judah Chronology

When reading the table, take care to not confuse the abbreviation for Jeremiah (Jer) with the abbreviation for the Jerusalem Chronicle (Jer. Chon.).

Key dates highlighted in:
    
Biblical synchronisms in:
    
Babylonian embolismic months in:
    
Hebrew hypothetical embolismic months in:
    

Julian
Year
B.C.
Julian
Month
Babylonian
Month
Hebrew
Year
A.M.
Hebrew
Month
Event Jeremiah, Ezekiel,
Israel
use Nisan accession-years
Daniel,
Judah
use Tishri accession-years
            Jehoiakim, Zedekiah Nebuchadnezzar Jehoiakim, Zedekiah Nebuchadnezzar
 610 Jan/Feb Shabatu   Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan          
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3152 Tishri          
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 609 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II ec          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan          
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz Josiah died        
Jul/Aug Abu Av Jehoahaz rules 3 months (2 Kings 23:31)        
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3153 Tishri          
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan Jehoiakim accession accession   accession  
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 608 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   1st regnal      
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3154 Tishri       1st regnal  
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 607 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II ed          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   2nd regnal      
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
  Ululu II            
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3155 Tishri       2nd regnal  
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 606 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   3rd regnal      
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3156 Tishri       3rd regnal  
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 605 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
  Addaru II            
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   4th regnal      
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan Nebuchadnezzar victory at Carchemish
 (Jer. Chron. obs. line 1-7)
 Jer 46:2      
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av Nabopolassar died Abu 8th
 (Jer. Chron. obs. line 10)
       
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul Nebuchadnezzar accession Ululu 1
 (Jer. Chron. obs. line 11-12)
 & first siege of Jerusalem
  accession  Dan 1:1 accession
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3157 Tishri       4th regnal 1st regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan Jeremiah prophesys 70 years exile  Jer 25:1      
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 604 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II ec          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   5th regnal 1st regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan Nebuchadnezzar exacts 3 years servitude from Jehoiakim (2 Kings 24:1)        
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3158 Tishri       5th regnal 2nd regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev Nebuchadnezzar captures Aškelon
 (Jer. Chron. obs. line 18)
       
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 603 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   6th regnal 2nd regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan Jehoiakim's 1st year of servitude ends        
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
  Ululu II            
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3159 Tishri       6th regnal 3rd regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 602 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   7th regnal 3rd regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan Jehoiakim's 2nd year of servitude ends        
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3160 Tishri       7th regnal 4th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 601 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II er          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   8th regnal 4th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan Jehoiakim's 3rd year of servitude ends        
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3161 Tishri       8th regnal 5th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev Nebuchadnezzar defeated at Egyptian border (Jer. Chron. rvs. line 6-7)
& Jehoiakim rebels (after 3rd year of servitude)
       
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 600 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   9th regnal 5th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
  Ululu II            
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3162 Tishri       9th regnal 6th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 599 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II ed          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   10th regnal 6th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3163 Tishri       10th regnal 7th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 598 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   11th regnal 7th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
  Ululu II            
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3164 Tishri       11th regnal 8th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan  Jehoiakim dies in 11th year Heshvan 22
 Jehoiachin accedes
 accession    accession
 2Ki 24:6
 
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev  Nebuchadnezzar marches to Hatti-land
 (Jer. Chron. rvs. line 11)
       
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 597 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar  Jerusalem falls Addaru 2
 (Jer. Chron. rvs. line 12)
 Nebuchadnezzar deports 3,023
   Jer 52:28**    2Ki 24:12
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan  Zedekiah accession
 (Jer. Chron. rvs. line 13)
' at turn of the year' (2Ch 36:10)
accession 8th regnal  accession
 Jer 52:1**
 2Ki 24:17
 2Ch 36:10
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3165 Tishri       1st regnal 9th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 596 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II ec          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   1st regnal 9th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
  Ululu II            
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3166 Tishri       2nd regnal 10th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 595 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   2nd regnal 10th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3167 Tishri       3rd regnal 11th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 594 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   3rd regnal 11th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3168 Tishri       4th regnal 12th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev  Nebuchadnezzar marches again to Hatti-land (Jer. Chron. rvs. line 25)        
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 593 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
  Addaru II Adar II ec          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   4th regnal 12th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3169 Tishri       5th regnal 13th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 592 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   5th regnal 13th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3170 Tishri       6th regnal 14th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 591 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   6th regnal 14th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3171 Tishri       7th regnal 15th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 590 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
  Addaru II Adar II ed          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   7th regnal 15th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3172 Tishri       8th regnal 16th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 589 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   8th regnal 16th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3173 Tishri  (month 1)     9th regnal 17th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan  (month 2)        
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev  (month 3)        
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet  (month 4)         
 588 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat  (month 5)        
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar  (month 6)        
    Adar II ec  (no hint in Jeremiah or Chronicler)        
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan  (month 7) 9th regnal 17th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar  (month 8)        
May/Jun Simanu Sivan  (month 9)        
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz  Nebuchadnezzar final siege of Jerusalem,
 10th month, 10th day of Zedekiah's 9th year
     Jer 39:1*
 Jer 52:4-5**
 2Ki 25:1
 
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3174 Tishri       10th regnal 18th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 587 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
  Addaru II            
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan    Jeremiah prophesys Zedekiah's capture
 Nebuchadnezzar deports 832 more
10th regnal
Jer 32:1  
18th regnal
 Jer 32:1
   Jer 52:29**
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3175 Tishri       11th regnal 19th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 586 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan   (month 1) 11th regnal 19th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar   (month 2)        
May/Jun Simanu Sivan   (month 3)        
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz  Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem, 4th month 9th day of Zedekiah's 11th
 Zedekiah captured
 Jer 39:2
 Jer 52:5-7**
   2Ki 25:2-3
 2Ki 24:18
 2Ch 36:11
 2Ki 25:2-3
 2Ki 25:7
Jul/Aug Abu Av  Nebuzaradan burns Temple, Av 7th -10th  Jer 1:3
 Jer 52:12-13**
 Jer 52:12-13**  2Ch 36:19  2Ki 25:8-9
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3176 Tishri         20th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 585 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II ec          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan     20th regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3177 Tishri         21st regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 584 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan     21st regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
  Ululu II            
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3178 Tishri         22nd regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 583 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan     22nd regnal    
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3179 Tishri         23rd regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
 582 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          
Feb/Mar Addaru Adar          
    Adar II ec          
Mar/Apr Nisanu Nisan  Nebuzaradan deports 745 more   23rd regnal    Jer 52:30**
Apr/May Aiaru Iyar          
May/Jun Simanu Sivan          
Jun/Jul Duzu Tammuz          
Jul/Aug Abu Av          
Aug/Sep Ululu Elul          
Sep/Oct Tashritu  3180 Tishri         20th regnal
Oct/Nov Arahsamnu Heshvan          
Nov/Dec Kislimnu Kislev          
Dec/Jan Tebetu Tevet          
581 Jan/Feb Shabatu Shevat          

* Jeremiah 39:1 would appear to reckon months from a Tishri regnal year whereas Jer 39:2 would appear to reckon months from a Nisan regnal year.

** All dates from Jeremiah chapter 52 are presumed to be reckoned on Tishri-accession years or are otherwise quoting accounts of the chronicler of 2 Kings, as Jeremiah 52 is generally recognized as an appendix not authored by Jeremiah. Note the last verse of chapter 51 is: Jer 51:64b "Thus far are the words of Jeremiah" afterwhich comes chapter 52 which is a chronology of the reign of Zedekiah to the final fall of Jerusalem, seemingly reckoned on Tishri-accession years (see for example Jer 52:4 "ninth year of his reign, on the tenth day of the tenth month"), and not Nisan-accession years as in Jeremiah chapters 1-51. While verses such as Jeremiah 52:29, 30 are indeterminate, Jeremiah 52:5-6, 12, and 28 would seem to be exceptions to such a presumption.

To ensure that intercalated months did not invalidate the correlation of Jeremiah's and Daniel's reporting of dates and events, the table above shows the intercalated (embolismic) months. See Hebrew and Babylonian Intercalation for a brief overview of the intercalation methods and their impact on the above table.

Dates of Nebuchadnezzar's military campaigns are recorded in the Babylonian Chronicle which has been cited by most historians and scholars (including Finegan and others relied upon above) to substantiate the accounts of the Old Testament.

Historicity of the Babylonian Chronicle can be verified at:

Jona Lendering (at livius.org) has excerpted English translations of many Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian texts which may be viewed at Mesopotamian chronicles.



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(last updated October 10, 2013)