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Years of Tiberius

Tiberius' years are reckoned as factual (not regnal) beginning from his co-regency with Augustus in A.D. 12. By that reckoning, Jesus was baptized in the 15th year of Tiberius and crucified in A.D. 30 (consistent with the harmonized gospel accounts of Passion Week) the 18th year of Tiberius as reported by Eusebius (as preserved in Jerome).

Synchronisms of Jesus Christ's baptism and crucifixion with Years of Tiberius and related history are developed in detail below and summarized in the following table:

 
Tiberius
 
1  
2  
3  
4  
5  
6  
7  
8  
9  
10  
11  
12  
13  
14  
15  
16  
17  
18  
 
months JO ND JO ND JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD JA SD
year AD
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
Jesus
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
Daniel's 69-week prophecy fulfilled at Jesus' baptism ↑
Jesus' crucifixion ↑
 

The 1st year of Tiberius began as coregent in October of A.D. 12 and he was named head of state in September of A.D. 14 which pushed his factual year earlier two months, reckoned thereafter from the fall month of September through August of the following year.

Consequently, Tiberius' 15th year spanned the last 4 months of A.D. 26 (when Christ was baptized just after His 30th birthday) to the first 8 months of A.D. 27, and Tiberius' 18th year spanned the last 4 months of A.D. 29 into the first 8 months of A.D. 30 (when Christ was crucified on April 3rd).

Above, "JO" means January through October, "JA" means January through August, "SD" means September through December, and "ND" means November through December, all ranges inclusive.

It must be noted, there exist two double-dated coins which contradict the analysis below, and date Tiberius' reign as beginning A.D. 14 with Augustus' death. At present, these double dated coins aren't reconciled with the analysis below, and further research is being done on them and how Actian years are reckoned and synchronizations with other eras. These coins are:

Below are discussions of:

Tiberius' factual years:

Tiberius' years are reckoned as "factual" meaning a full year or rule is reckoned from the actual accession to the anniversary of the same accession. The 1st year begins on the day of accession and the 2nd year begins exactly a year later. The basis for this assessment is:

  1. Seutonius seemingly uses a regnal year reckoning only for Tiberius' years subsequent to his joint-governorship with Augustus, but uses factual year reckoning for Augustus (giving Augustus credit for years shared with Tiberius), as well as for Caligula and Claudius.
  2. Tacitus seemingly uses factual year reckoning for Tiberius, but did not record history prior to Tiberius, and his history covering Caligula and Claudius is lost.
  3. Coins minted by Gratus and Pilate and circulated in Judea are dated consistent with a factual year reckoning for Tiberius.

Seutonius records of Julius;

80 ... 4 More than sixty joined the conspiracy against him, led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus and Decimus Brutus. At first they hesitated whether to form two divisions at the elections in the Campus Martius, so that while some hurled him from the bridge as he summoned the tribes to vote, the rest might wait below and slay him; or to set upon him in the Sacred Way or at the entrance to the theatre. When, however, a meeting of the Senate was called for the Ides of March in the Hall of Pompey, they readily gave that time and place the preference.

88 1 He died in the fifty-sixth year of his age, and was numbered among the gods, not only by a formal decree, but also in the conviction of the common people. For at the first of the games which his heir Augustus gave in honour of his apotheosis, a comet shone for seven successive days, rising about the eleventh hour, and was believed to be the soul of Caesar, who had been taken to heaven; and this is why a star is set upon the crown of his head in his statue.

It was voted that the hall in which he was slain be walled up, that the Ides of March be called the Day of Parricide, and that a meeting of the senate should never be called on that day.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Julius Caesar" 80.4, 88.1
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

Seutonius does not give a duration for Julius' reign, just his death on March 15, 44 B.C.

Seutonius records of Augustus;

8 1-3 At the age of four he lost his father. ... He did, however, return to the city and enter upon his inheritance, in spite of the doubts of his mother and the strong opposition of his stepfather, the ex-consul Marcius Philippus. 3 Then he levied armies and henceforth ruled the State, at first with Marcus Antonius and Marcus Lepidus, then with Antony alone for nearly twelve years, and finally by himself for forty-four.

100 1 He died in the same room as his father Octavius, in the consulship of two Sextuses, Pompeius and Appuleius, on the fourteenth day before
the Kalends of September [August 19th] at the ninth hour, just thirty-five days before his seventy-sixth birthday. ...

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Augustus" 8.1, 100.1
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

Octavian was renamed Augustus in 27 B.C. and was officially the first Roman emperor, but from 27 B.C. to A.D. 14 is 41 years, not "four and forty".

Subsequent to Julius Caesar's death in March of 44 B.C., a triumvirate of Octavian (Augustus), Lepidus and Antonius existed until Lepidus was removed in 36 B.C. and Antonius was defeated at Actium in 31 B.C. Consequently, rule in Augustus' "own hands" may have begun by full-year regnal reckoning in 30 B.C. through to A.D. 11 (the last full regnal year prior to joint governance with Tiberius in A.D. 12), which yields only 41 years of "government held in his own hands", not "four and forty".

By regnal accession year reckoning, and ignoring joint governance with Antonius and Lepidus, Augustus acceded to sole rule in 31 B.C., his 1st regnal year would begin 30 B.C., and upon his death on August 19 A.D. 14 would be credited with all of A.D. 14 as a regnal year, hence would have reigned 44 years: 30 B.C. through A.D. 14, but not "in his own hands" because the government was shared with Tiberius for the last 3 years of A.D. 12, 13, and 14.

Notably, if Seutonius reckons Augustus acceded to sole rule in 31 B.C., and his 1st regnal year would begin 30 B.C. and gives Augustus regnal year credit for all of A.D. 12 (the last year in which Augustus had some sole reign) and ignores the years of A.D. 13 and 14 during which Augustus shared governance with Tiberius, then regnal year reckoning still yields 42 years: 30 B.C. regnal years + A.D. 12 regnal years.

Seutonius' 44 year reckoning for Augustus is only possible in factual years (reckoned from the defeat of both Lepidus and Antonius) and including joint governance with Tiberius (in spite of the qualifier "in his own hands").

Seutonius records of Tiberius;

73 1 ... Detained, however, by bad weather and the increasing violence of his illness, he died a little later in the villa of Lucullus,g in the seventy-eighth year of his age and the twenty-third of his reign, on the seventeenth day before the Kalends of April [March 16th], in the consulship of Gnaeus Acerronius Proculus and Gaius Pontius Nigrinus.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Tiberius", 73.1,
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

The phrase "twenty-third of his reign" would generally imply full year regnal reckoning, and implicitly from A.D. 15 was the 1st regnal year with A.D. 14 being the accession year and ignoring joint governance This would be conclusive if it were the only evidence, and if Seutonius himself hadn't also recorded Tiberius' earlier express joint governance, by law.

Seutonius records of Caligula;

59 1 He lived twenty-nine years and ruled three years, ten months and eight days. ...

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Caligula", 59.1,
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

By regnal accession year reckoning, Caligula acceded after Tiberius death in March of A.D. 37, 1st regnal year would begin January A.D. 38, and upon his death on January 24 A.D. 41 would be credited with all of A.D. 41 as a regnal year, hence would have reigned 4 years: 38, 39, 40 and 41, not "ruled three years, ten months and eight days". Seutonius is reckoning Caligula's reign in factual years.

Seutonius records of Claudius;

45 1 ... He died on the third day before the Ides of October in the consulship of Asinius Marcellus and Acilius Aviola, in the sixty-fourth year of his age and the fourteenth of his reign. He was buried with regal pomp and enrolled among the gods, an honour neglected and finally annulled by Nero, but later restored to him by Vespasian.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Claudius", 45.1
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1914)

By regnal accession year reckoning, Claudius acceded after Caligula's death on January 24 of A.D. 41 and Claudius 1st regnal year would begin January of A.D. 42, and upon his death on October 13, A.D. 54 would be credited with all of A.D. 54 as a regnal year, hence would have reigned 13 regnal years; 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, and 54. Yet Seutonius credits Claudius with a 14th year of reign which is only possible by reckoning from January (or February) of A.D. 41 through and including October of A.D. 54, which is again a factual reckoning.

Tacitus records of Tiberius;

6.51 And so died Tiberius, in the seventy eighth year of his age. ... On his return from Rhodes he ruled the emperor's now heirless house for twelve years, and the Roman world, with absolute sway, for about twenty-three. ...

Publius Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals 6.51,
The complete works of Tacitus, tr. Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brodribb, The Modern Library (1942)

Note Tacitus' precise qualification "with absolute sway for about". Tacitus doesn't simply say "Tiberius ruled the Roman world for twenty three years", because it was neither twenty three years nor always absolute. It was longer and had a co-regency period.

By regnal accession reckoning from Augustus' death in August of A.D. 14, Tiberius' 1st regnal year wouldn't begin until January of A.D. 15 and his last regnal year would run until January of A.D. 38 following his death, and his reign would then be exactly 23 full regnal years. But Tacitus doesn't say 23 years, rather Tacitus qualifies with "absolute sway for about" twenty three years.

Tacitus was precise in his wording because he a) wasn't reckoning by regnal years (which are full and exact) and b) Tiberius had earlier ruled the Roman world not with absolute sway but as co-regent for more than two additional years since October of A.D. 12.

Seutonius records that Tiberius co-regency began in October of A.D. 12 and Tacitus records Tiberius' entire reign not by 23 full regnal years, but about (i.e. not full, and not exactly) 23 more years with absolute sway subsequent to 2+ earlier years with joint sway.

Tacitus was not uncertain. He had the same complete, exact to-the-month-and-day record of Tiberius as did Seutonius, and Tacitus knew regnal years are full, exact years, and that there is nothing "about" to be reckoned for regnal accession years. But that is not what Tacitus recorded. Rather, Tacitus summarized with appropriate nuance that Tiberius' rule was "about" 23 years, having an earlier additional 2 years and 2 months that were not "absolute" but joint governance, since October A.D. 12.

Coinage of the Roman Prefects of Judea:

Dates on coins minted by Gratus and Pilate reconcile with Years of Tiberius when reckoned factually from his joint governance with Augustus in October of A.D. 12 through to Tiberius' death in March of A.D. 37, and synchronize with the baptism of Jesus Christ in A.D. 26 ("the fifteenth year of Tiberius when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea" as recorded by Luke) and Julia Augusta's death in A.D. 29. The reconcilation and synchronisms are summarized in the following table:

Augustus' death ↓ 
Jesus' baptism ↓ 
 ↓ crucifixion
Minted 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Tiberius 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Gratus             LΙΑ              
Pilate                               LΙϚ LΙΖ LΙΗ
 ↑ Julia's death

As summarized earler and documented below, Tiberius years were generally reckoned on a factual basis beginning with his joint-governance with Augustus.

Lest too fine a point be put on it, factual reckoning of Tiberius' years (as demonstrated in the chronology below) also synchronizes exactly to biblical accounts of Daniel's 483-year prophecy of "69 Weeks" (Dan 9:25) fulfilled with the baptism of Jesus Christ in A.D. 26 in Tiberius' 15th year, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and crucified on April 3rd (Gregorian) A.D. 30 in Tiberius' 18th year, the only year which also harmonizes all gospel accounts of Passion Week with the Essene, Hillel II, Julian and Gregorian calendars including the US Naval Observatory data for vernal equinoxes.

Tiberius' 1st year (as co-regent):

There can be no question of Tiberius' co-regency. It was a matter of law and record:

20 1 After two years [12 A.D.] he returned to the city from Germany and celebrated the triumph which he had postponed, accompanied also by his generals, for whom he had obtained the triumphal regalia. ...

21 1 Since the consuls caused a law to be passed soon after this that he should govern the provinces jointly with Augustus and hold the census with him, he set out for Illyricum on the conclusion of the lustral ceremonies;30 but he was at once recalled, and finding Augustus in his last illness but still alive, he spent an entire day with him in private.

n30 See Aug. xcvii.1.

97 1 His death, too, of which I shall speak next, and his deification after death, were known in advance by unmistakable signs. As he was bringing the lustrum148 to an end in the Campus Martius before a great throng of people,

n148 The lustrum was a sacrifice of purification, made every five years by one of the censors, after the completion of the census, or enumeration of the Roman people. The sacrifice consisted of the suovetaurilia, the offering of a pig, a sheep, and a bull. Lustrum was also applied to the five-year period.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Tiberius", 20.1, 21.1,
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

Subsequent to the consuls having made Tiberius joint governor with Augustus (everyone seemingly aware of Augustus' poor health and pending death, his grip on power waning, and that Tiberius was the heir designate who had just achieved a military victory in Pannonia), Augustus then 7 months later made out his will:

101 1 He had made a will in the consulship of Lucius Plancus and Gaius Silius on the third day before the Nones of April [A.D. 13 April 3], a year and four months before he died, in two note-books, written in part in his own hand and in part in that of his freedmen Polybius and Hilarion. These the Vestal virgins, with whom they had been deposited, now produced, together with three rolls, which were sealed in the same way. All these were opened and read in the senate. 2 He appointed as his chief heirs Tiberius, to receive two-thirds of the estate, and Livia, one-third; these he also bade assume his name.157

157 Augustus and Augusta, but Tiberius did not assume the title until it was conferred on him by the senate; Dio 57.2-3.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Augustus", 101.1,
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

Augustus would then die 16 months after having made out that will:

73 1 ... Detained, however, by bad weather and the increasing violence of his illness, he died a little later in the villa of Lucullus,g in the seventy-eighth year of his age and the twenty-third of his reign, on the seventeenth day before the Kalends of April, in the consulship of Gnaeus Acerronius Proculus and Gaius Pontius Nigrinus [A.D. 37 March 16th].

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Tiberius",
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

Tiberius' 2nd year (as co-regent):

Augustus dies on August 19th, A.D. 14 near the end of Tiberius 2nd year as co-regent (anniversary month is October). Tiberius delays accepting the Senate's confirmation of head state until Sept 17th:

Seutonius;

20 1 Tiberius did not make the death of Augustus public until the young Agrippa had been disposed of. The latter was slain by a tribune of the soldiers appointed to guard him, who received a letter in which he was bidden to do the deed; but it is not known whether Augustus left this letter when he died, to remove a future source of discord, or whether Livia wrote it herself in the name of her husband; and in the latter case, whether it was with or without the connivance of Tiberius. ...

24 1 Though Tiberius did not hesitate at once to assume and to exercise the imperial authority, surrounding himself with a guard of soldiers, that is, with the actual power and the outward sign of sovereignty, yet he refused the title for a long time, with barefaced hypocrisy now upbraiding his friends who urged him to accept it, saying that they did not realise what a monster the empire was, and now by evasive answers and calculating hesitancy keeping the senators in suspense when they implored him to yield, and fell at his feet. Finally, some lost patience, and one man cried out in the confusion: "Let him take it or leave it." Another openly voiced the taunt that others were slow in doing what they promised, but that he was slow to promise what he was already doing. 2 At last, as though on compulsion, and complaining that a wretched and burdensome slavery was being forced upon him, he accepted the empire, but in such fashion as to suggest the hope that he would one day lay it down. His own words are: "Until I come to the time when it may seem right to you to grant an old man some repose."

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Tiberius", 20.1, 24.1
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

Note that "Tiberius did not hesitate at once to assume and to exercise the imperial authority ... with the actual power and the outward sign of sovereignty, yet he refused the title for a long time" and the taunt "slow to promise what he [Tiberius] was already doing" imply that Tiberius was in fact acting as emperor prior to accepting the title.

Tacitus;

VII. Meanwhile at Rome people plunged into slavery--consuls, senators, knights. The higher a man's rank, the more eager his hypocrisy, and his looks the more carefully studied, so as neither to betray joy at the decease of one emperor nor sorrow at the rise of another, while he mingled delight and lamentations with his flattery. Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius, the consuls, were the first to swear allegiance to Tiberius Cæsar, and in their presence the oath was taken by Seius Strabo and Caius Turranius, respectively the commander of the prætorian cohorts and the superintendent of the corn supplies. Then the Senate, the soldiers and the people did the same. For Tiberius would inaugurate everything with the consuls, as though the ancient constitution remained, and he hesitated about being emperor. Even the proclamation by which he summoned the senators to their chamber, he issued merely with the title of Tribune, which he had received under Augustus. The wording of the proclamation was brief, and in a very modest tone. "He would," it said, "provide for the honours due to his father, and not leave the lifeless body, and this was the only public duty he now claimed."

As soon, however, as Augustus was dead, he had given the watchword to the prætorian cohorts, as commander-in-chief. He had the guard under arms, with all the other adjuncts of a court; soldiers attended him to the forum; soldiers went with him to the Senate House. He sent letters to the different armies, as though supreme power was now his, and showed hesitation only when he spoke in the Senate. His chief motive was fear that Germanicus, who had at his disposal so many legions, such vast auxiliary forces of the allies, and such wonderful popularity, might prefer the possession to the expectation of empire. He looked also at public opinion, wishing to have the credit of having been called and elected by the State rather than of having crept into power through the intrigues of a wife and a dotard's adoption. It was subsequently understood that he assumed a wavering attitude, to test likewise the temper of the nobles. For he would twist a word or a look into a crime and treasure it up in his memory.

Publius Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals 1.7,
The complete works of Tacitus, tr. Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brodribb, The Modern Library (1942)

Dio;

2 It was due to this characteristic, that, as emperor, he immediately sent a dispatch from Nola to all the legions and provinces, though he did not claim to be emperor; for he would not accept this name, which was voted to him along with the others, and though taking the inheritance left him by Augustus, he would not adopt the title "Augustus." 2 At a time when he was already surrounded by the bodyguards, he actually asked the senate to lend him assistance so that he might not meet with any violence at the burial of the emperor; for he pretended to be afraid that people might catch up the body and burn it in the Forum, as they had done with that of Caesar. 3 When somebody thereupon facetiously proposed that he be given a guard, as if he had none, he saw through the man's irony and answered: "The soldiers do not belong to me, but to the State." Such was his action in this matter; and similarly he was administering in reality all the business of the empire while declaring that he did not want it at all.

Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 57.2
Vol. VII Loeb (1924)

The point of the foregoing is to provide background on why Tiberius delayed the formalities of being made sole head of state. He already had, by law, governing authority, and with Augustus dead and Livia's plans coming to fruition there was little to prevent his being made head of state. But Tiberius was concerned only with appearances - he sought the appearance of being a humble man upon whose shoulders were forced the weighty burdens of rule by his trusting subjects. Hence there was a delay in the formalities.

Since being made emperor by the Senate on September 17, A.D. 14, from a standpoint of reckoning factual years, little changes aside from the factual year anniversary, formerly in October, is now September (one month earlier). September now becomes the anniversery month for all of Tiberius' factual years henceforth in Tiberius' Chronology (below).

Tiberius' 3rd year:

Upon Augustus' death and being made sole head of state, Tiberius immediately appointed Gratus as Prefect of Judea to replace Rufus (who had been Augustus' appointee):

Ant. 18.2.2 [29] As Coponius, who we told you was sent along with Cyrenius, was exercising his office of procurator, and governing Judea, the following accidents happened. ... After him came Annius Rufus, under whom died Caesar, the second emperor of the Romans, the duration of whose reign was fifty-seven years, besides six months and two days (of which time Antonius ruled together with him fourteen years; but the duration of his life was seventy-seven years); upon whose death Tiberius Nero, his wife Julia's son, succeeded. He was now the third emperor; and he sent Valerius Gratus to be procurator of Judea, and to succeed Annius Rufus. This man deprived Ananus of the high priesthood, and appointed Ismael, the son of Phabi, to be high priest. He also deprived him in a little time, and ordained Eleazar, the son of Ananus, who had been high priest before, to be high priest; which office, when he had held for a year, Gratus deprived him of it, and gave the high priesthood to Simon, the son of Camithus; and when he had possessed that dignity no longer than a year, Joseph Caiaphas was made his successor. When Gratus had done those things, he went back to Rome, after he had tarried in Judea eleven years, when Pontius Pilate came as his successor.

Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews,
William Whiston ed., Ant. 18.2.2 (Beardsley, 1895)

Tiberius' 14th year:

Based on the factual year reckoning as established above, Tiberius, in his 3rd year had immediately upon Augustus' death, replaced the Roman prefect of Judea (Rufus appointed under Augustus) with Gratus, who as reported by Josephus held office for 11 years.

Ant. 18.2.2 [29]... and he sent Valerius Gratus to be procurator of Judea, and to succeed Annius Rufus ... When Gratus had done those things, he went back to Rome, after he had tarried in Judea eleven years, when Pontius Pilate came as his successor.

Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews,
William Whiston ed., Ant. 18.2.2 (Beardsley, 1895)

In late A.D. 25 or into 26, Tiberius in his 14th year, then replaced Gratus (in his 11th year) with by Pontius Pilate, thus establishing Pilate as Prefect (governor) in Judea prior to and synchronous with Jesus' baptism. Pilate would hold office for 10 years until ordered by Vitellius (in Tiberius' 24th year) to return to Rome and answer to Tiberius for provoking Jewish unrest in Judea:

Historians didn't provide the month of any events associated with Judean prefects, just their general years and consequently the table below only portrays their approximate inaugural events and anniversaries.

Tiberius' 15th year:

Early in Tiberius 15th year, probably between September and October of A.D. 26, Jesus Christ was baptized, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea (all Bible cites are NASB):

Mat 3:13 Then Jesus arrived from Galilee at the Jordan coming to John, to be baptized by him.

Mar 1:9 In those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.

Luk 3:1-3 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, (2) in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. (3) And he came into all the district around the Jordan, preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins;

Luk 3:21-23 Now when all the people were baptized, Jesus was also baptized, and while He was praying, heaven was opened, (22) and the Holy Spirit descended upon Him in bodily form like a dove, and a voice came out of heaven, "You are My beloved Son, in You I am well-pleased." (23) When He began His ministry, Jesus Himself was about thirty years of age, being, as was supposed, the son of Joseph, the son of Eli,

New American Standard Bible, The Lockman Foundation (1995)

This synchronism of A.D. 26 and Tiberius 15th year is further synchronized with Daniel's 483-year long 69-week prophecy (and commensurate synchronism's with that earlier historical record) which prophecy and synchronism's are fulfilled with the anointing of the Messiah (Jesus' baptism).

Tiberius' 17th year:

Julia Augusta (Livia Drusilla), wife of Augustus and mother of Tiberius, died early in A.D. 29, the year only being reported by Seutonius and Dio:

Dio;

2 At this time also Livia passed away at the age of eighty-six. Tiberius neither paid her any visits during her illness nor did he himself lay out her body; in fact, he made no arrangements at all in her honour except for the public funeral and images and some other matters of no importance. As for her being deified, he forbade that absolutely. 2 The senate, however, did not content itself with voting merely the measures that he had commanded, but ordered mourning for her during the whole year on the part of the women, although it approved the course of Tiberius in not abandoning the conduct of the public business even at this time. 3 They furthermore voted an arch in her honour — a distinction conferred upon no other woman — because she had saved the lives of not a few of them, had reared the children of many, and had helped many to pay their daughters' dowries, in consequence of all which some were calling her Mother of her Country. She was buried in the mausoleum of Augustus.

Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 58.2
Vol. VII Loeb (1924)

Seutonius records Livia's death at age 86, 15 years after Augustus which would be A.D. 29:

In this period died, in the eighty-sixth year of her age, Livia Drusilla, mother of the emperor, and the relict of Augustus, whom she survived fifteen years.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "Remarks on Tiberius",
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Gebbie ( 1889)

Seutonius further records Tiberius' hatred and actions to deprive Livia of postmortem honoraria:

50 1 He first showed his hatred of his kindred in the case of his brother Drusus, producing a letter of his, in which Drusus discussed with him the question of compelling Augustus to restore the Republic; and then he turned against the rest. So far from showing any courtesy or kindness to his wife Julia, after her banishment, which is the least that one might expect, although her father's order had merely confined her to one town, he would not allow her even to eave her house or enjoy the society of mankind. Nay more, he even deprived her of the allowance granted her by her father and of her yearly income, under colour of observance of the common law, since Augustus had made no provision for these in his will. 2 Vexed at his mother Livia, alleging that she claimed an equal share in the rule, he shunned frequent meetings with her and long and confidential conversations, to avoid the appearance of being guided by her advice; though in point of fact he was wont every now and then to need and to follow it. He was greatly offended too by a decree of the senate, providing that "son of Livia," as well as "son of Augustus" should be written in his honorary inscriptions. 3 For this reason he would not suffer her to be named "Parent of her Country," nor to receive any conspicuous public honour. More than that, he often warned her not to meddle with affairs of importance and unbecoming a woman, especially after he learned that at a fire near the temple of Vesta she had been present in person, and urged the people and soldiers to greater efforts, as had been her way while her husband was alive.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Tiberius", 50.1,
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

51 1 Afterwards he reached the point of open enmity, and the reason, they say, was this. On her urging him again and again to appoint among the jurors a man who had been made a citizen, he declared that he would do it only on condition that she would allow an entry to be made in the official list that it was forced upon him by his mother. Then Livia, in a rage, drew from a secret place and read some old letters written to her by Augustus with regard to the austerity and stubbornness of Tiberius' disposition. He in turn was so put out that these had been preserved so long and were thrown up at him in such a spiteful spirit, that some think that this was the very strongest of the reasons for his retirement. 2 At all events, during all the three years that she lived after he left Rome he saw her but once, and then only one day, for a very few hours; and when shortly after that she fell ill, he took no trouble to visit her. When she died, and after a delay of several days, during which he held out hope of his coming, had at last been buried because the condition of the corpse made it necessary, he forbade her deification, alleging that he was acting according to her own instructions. He further disregarded the provisions of her will, and within a short time caused the downfall of all her friends and intimates, even of those to whom she had on her deathbed entrusted the care of her obsequies, actually condemning one of them, and that a man of equestrian rank, to the treadmill.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Life of Tiberius", 51.1
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Loeb (1913)

Tacitus similarly notes Tiberius' chafing under Livia's manipulations and his cancellation of honoraria in her name:

5.1 IN the consulship of Rubellius and Fufius, both of whom had the surname Geminus, died in an advanced old age Julia Augusta. A Claudia by birth and by adoption a Livia and a Julia, she united the noblest blood of Rome. Her first marriage, by which she had children, was with Tiberius Nero, who, an exile during the Perusian war, returned to Rome when peace had been concluded between Sextus Pompeius and the triumvirs. After this Cæsar, enamoured of her beauty, took her away from her husband, whether against her wish is uncertain. So impatient was he that he brought her to his house actually pregnant, not allowing time for her confinement. She had no subsequent issue, but allied as she was through the marriage of Agrippina and Germanicus to the blood of Augustus, her great-grandchildren were also his. In the purity of her home life she was of the ancient type, but was more gracious than was thought fitting in ladies of former days. An imperious mother and an amiable wife, she was a match for the diplomacy of her husband and the dissimulation of her son. Her funeral was simple, and her will long remained unexecuted. Her panegyric was pronounced from the Rostra by her great-grandson, Caius Cæsar, who afterwards succeeded to power.

5.2 Tiberius however, making no change in his voluptuous life, excused himself by letter for his absence from his last duty to his mother on the ground of the pressure of business. He even abridged, out of moderation, as it seemed, the honours which the Senate had voted on a lavish scale to her memory, allowing only a very few, and adding that no religious worship was to be decreed, this having been her own wish. In a part of the same letter he sneered at female friendships, with an indirect censure on the consul Fufius, who had risen to distinction through Augusta's partiality. Fufius was indeed a man well fitted to win the affection of a woman; he was witty too, and accustomed to ridicule Tiberius with those bitter jests which the powerful remember so long.

5.3 This at all events was the beginning of an unmitigated and grinding despotism. As long indeed as Augusta lived, there yet remained a refuge, for with Tiberius obedience to his mother was the habit of a life, and Sejanus did not dare to set himself above a parent's authority. Now, so to say, they threw off the reins and let loose their fury. A letter was sent, directed against Agrippina and Nero, which was popularly believed to have been long before forwarded and to have been kept back by Augusta, as it was publicly read soon after her death. It contained expressions of studied harshness, yet it was not armed rebellion or a longing for revolution, but unnatural passions and profligacy which the emperor imputed to his grandson. Against his daughter-in-law he did not dare to invent this much; he merely censured her insolent tongue and defiant spirit, amid the panic-stricken silence of the Senate, till a few who had no hope from merit (and public calamities are ever used by individuals for interested purposes) demanded that the question should be debated. The most eager was Cotta Messalinus, who made a savage speech. Still, the other principal senators, and especially the magistrates, were perplexed, for Tiberius, notwithstanding his furious invective, had left everything else in doubt.

Publius Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals 5.1-3,
The complete works of Tacitus, tr. Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brodribb, The Modern Library (1942)

A number of events occurred as a direct consequence of Julia Augusta's death: Tiberius' hatred of her was revealed in that he refused to execute her will, refused to allow public honors of her such as being declared "Mater Patriae" (Mother of the Fatherland), refused to allow himself to be titled "Son of Livia", and defied the Senate's decree to erect an arch in her honor; and Sejanus' power was now unchecked and he caused a Senate trial of Agrippina and Julius Nero whom the Senate exiled to Pandataria off the coast of Naples.

All the above serves to demonstrate two points:

  1. Enough transpired in A.D. 29 consequent to Julia Augusta's death, that she had to have died early enough in A.D. 29 to permit the various Senate honors to be enacted and defied by Tiberius and for Sejanus to cause a Senate trial and exile of Agrippina and Nero.
  2. Tiberius sufficiently hated his mother to cause her honorific to be removed from the coins Pilate was minting in Judea. Recall above that Pilate had previously minted a year earlier in A.D. 28 (Tiberius' 16th Year) the first "LIS" dated coins with the text "Of Tiberius Emperor" and "Empress Julia" (Emperor Tiberius' mother and wife of Emperor Augustus, hence her name Julia Augusta), but now in A.D. 29 subsequent to Julia's death, Pilate's next "LIZ" dated coins (Tiberius' 17th Year) were now minted without "Empress Julia".

The change from including "Empress Julia" on Pilate's "LIS" coins (dated in the 16th Year of Tiberius, minted in A.D. 28) to now excluding "Empress Julia" on Pilate's"LIZ" coins (dated in the 17th Year of Tiberius, minted in A.D. 29), establishes another synchronism only possible when Tiberius' years are reckoned as factual beginning in A.D. 12 with his joint-governorship with Augustus.

In the Tiberius chronology below, commensurate with Julia Augusta's death early enough in A.D. 29 to accommodate the various events including the minting of coins in Judea without her honorific, it is consequently assumed that the timeframe for Pilate to mint these coins was generally about the same timeframe every year, and "March" has been estimated as such a timeframe which satisfies this coin-minting criteria for A.D. 28, 29, and 30.

Tiberius' 18th year:

Jesus Christ was crucified on April 3rd (Gregorian) in A.D. 30, the 18th year of Tiberius, Pilate was still governor of Judea and had issued the Judean coin for Tiberius' 18th year.

The synchronism's of Christ's crucifixion on Jewish Passover in A.D. 30, and the only year in which the Lord's supper could be held 1 day earlier on Essene Passover, both synchronized with Gregorian, Julian and Hillel II calendrics as well as US Naval Observatory data on the vernal equinox in A.D. 30, and Tiberius 18th year all further synchronized with Eusebius reporting the crucifixion in Tiberius' 18th year.

The only failed synchronism in April A.D. 30 is that of Phlegon's reporting for Ol 202.4 which equates to A.D. 32/33 (highlighted in yellow in the chronology below) of an unusual eclipse (ostensibly the "darkening" of the sky at the 6th-9th hours of the crucifixion as reported by Matthew, Mark and Luke) which Eusebius (as preserved by Jerome) associates with the 18th year of Tiberius.

Phlegon's report of the crucifixion dated to the 202nd Olympiad is recorded in Eusebius' The Chronological Canons (ca. 311 AD) as translated and revised by Jerome in The Chronical of Jerome (c. 380 AD):

Jesus Christ, according to the prophecies, which had been spoken about him beforehand, came to the Passion in the 18th year of Tiberius, at which time also we find these things written verbatim in other commentaries of the gentiles: an eclipse of the sun happened 1, Bithynia shaken by earthquake, and in the city of Nicaea many buildings collapsed: all of which agree with what occurred in the Passion of the Saviour. Indeed Phlegon, who is an excellent calculator of olympiads, also writes about this, in his 13th book writing thus:

[Phlegon writing in the 2nd century A.D.] "However in the fourth year of the 202nd olympiad, an eclipse of the sun happened, greater and more excellent than any that had happened before it; at the sixth hour, day turned into dark night, so that the stars were seen in the sky, and an earthquake in Bithynia toppled many buildings of the city of Nicaea." These things the aforementioned man (says).

The proof however of this matter, that in this year the Saviour suffered, the gospel of John presents, in which it is written that after the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar, the Lord preached for three years. Also Josephus, a native writer of the Jews, attests that around that time on the day of Pentecost, the priests first perceived an earth tremor and certain (loud) sounds. Then, that an unexpected voice suddenly burst out from the innermost part of the Temple saying: "Let us flee from this abode." However the aforementioned man writes that in the same year Pilate the governor secretly in the night set up images of Caesar in the temple, and from this arose the first cause of the rebellion and turmoil of the Jews.

Jerome, "The Chronicle" translated by Roger Pearse, et.al. (2005) from
The Bodleian Manuscript of Jerome's Version of the Chronicle of Eusebius by J. K. Fotheringham, Clarendon (1905);

Tiberius' 23rd year:

In A.D. 35, in his 23rd year, Tiberius gives policy authority for all Roman eastern provinces to Vitellius.

[6.32] This suited the wishes of Tiberius. ... He then intrusted the whole of his eastern policy to Lucius Vitellius. The man, I am aware, had a bad name at Rome, and many a foul story was told of him. But in the government of provinces he acted with the virtue of ancient times. He returned, and then, through fear of Caius Caesar and intimacy with Claudius, he degenerated into a servility so base that he is regarded by an after-generation as the type of the most degrading adulation. The beginning of his career was forgotten in its end, and an old age of infamy effaced the virtues of youth.

Publius Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals 6.32,
The complete works of Tacitus, tr. Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brodribb, The Modern Library (1942)

Tiberius' 24th year:

In A.D. 36, in the 24th year of Tiberius, Vitellius replaces Pilate with Marcellus as prefect of Judea, and orders Pilate (in Pilate's 10th year as prefect) to return to Rome and answer to Tiberius for problems in Judea:

Tacitus records Vitellius' two summer campaigns against Artabanus:

[6.37] Vitellius, as soon as Artabanus had fled and his people were inclined to have a new king, urged Tiridates to seize the advantage thus offered, and then led the main strength of the legions and the allies to the banks of the Euphrates. ... Vitellius thought it enough to have displayed the arms of Rome, and he then bade Tiridates remember his grandfather Phraates, and his foster-father Caesar, and all that was glorious in both of them, while the nobles were to show obedience to their king, and respect for us, each maintaining his honour and his loyalty. This done, he returned with the legions to Syria.

[6.38] I have related in sequence the events of two summer-campaigns, as a relief to the reader's mind from our miseries at home. ...

Publius Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals 6.37-38,
The complete works of Tacitus, tr. Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brodribb, The Modern Library (1942)

Josephus records Vitellius then sent Marcellus to replace Pilate whom he ordered back to Rome:

Ant. 18.4.2 [88] But when this tumult was appeased, the Samaritan senate sent an embassy to Vitellius, a man that had been consul, and who was now president of Syria, and accused Pilate of the murder of those that were killed; for that they did not go to Tirathaba in order to revolt from the Romans, but to escape the violence of Pilate. So Vitellius sent Marcellus, a friend of his, to take care of the affairs of Judea, and ordered Pilate to go to Rome, to answer before the emperor to the accusations of the Jews. So Pilate, when he had tarried ten years in Judea, made haste to Rome, and this in obedience to the orders of Vitellius, which he durst not contradict; but before he could get to Rome Tiberius was dead.

Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews,
William Whiston ed., Ant. 18.4.2 (Beardsley, 1895)

Tiberius' 25th year:

On March 16th A.D. 37 in his 25th factual year at the age of 78, Tiberius dies before Pilate arrives. Four days later Vitellius is received in Jerusalem at the Passover (computed from Nisan 14th A.M. 3797 as March 20th (Julian), as reported by Josephus:

Josephus further notes Pilate was prefect in Judea for 10 years, but didn't arrive back in Rome until after Tiberius' death:

Ant. 18.4.2 [88] ... So Pilate, when he had tarried ten years in Judea, made haste to Rome, and this in obedience to the orders of Vitellius, which he durst not contradict; but before he could get to Rome Tiberius was dead.

Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews,
William Whiston ed., Ant. 18.4.2 (Beardsley, 1895)

Vitellius sent Marcellus to Judea in late summer and the voyage from Rome would have taken 10-15 days (favorable southerly voyage). Marcellus would have then told Pilate to report to Rome, probably in October. It is roughly 2300 nautical miles from Caesarea to Rome, requiring 55-73 days under normal circumstances (northerly voyage against prevailing winds), but winter conditions on the Mediterranean from October through March are to be avoided. But because a northerly voyage requires several weeks, Pilate arrived in Rome after Tiberius' death in March of A.D. 37, it is presumed Pilate was delayed in Judea for favorable sailing weather until early A.D. 37, and that Vitellius replaced Pilate with Marcellus prior to winter in A.D. 36, at the end of Pilate's 10th year (or possibly when he was beginning an 11th) as Prefect of Judea.

Tiberius' chronology (on factual reckoning beginning October of A.D. 12):

Anchor dates highlighted:
    
Anniversaries highlighted:
    
Speculative months highlighted:
    
Anomalies highlighted:
    

AD Month Olympic A.U.C Tiberius Prefects Event
             
             
12 Jan   765      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun          
Jul          
Aug          
Sep          
Oct         October 23rd Tiberius governs jointly with Augustus
Nov     1st   Tiberius begins 1st factual year.
Dec          
13 Jan   766      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr         April 3, Augustus prepares his will
May          
Jun          
Jul          
Aug          
Sep          
Oct          
Nov     2nd   Tiberius begins 2nd factual year
Dec          
14 Jan   767      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun          
Jul          
Aug       1st Aug 19, death of Augustus; Tiberius sends Valerius Gratus to replace Annius Rufus (Ant 18.2.2) who begins minting "LΒ" TIB coin within 1-2 months
Sep     3rd   Sep 17, Tiberius named head of state, factual years begin 2 months earlier
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
15 Jan   768      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun          
Jul          
Aug       2nd Gratus begins 2nd year
Sep     4th   Tiberius begins 4th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
      ( intervening 9 years omitted from table )
25 Jan   778      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun          
Jul          
Aug       11th Gratus begins 11th and final year as Prefect of Judea
Sep     14th   Tiberius begins 14th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
26 Jan   779      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun       1st Pontius Pilate replaces Gratus as Prefect of Judea early in 26 AD
Jul          
Aug         Jesus' 30th birth day week of Aug 13
Sep     15th   Tiberius begins 15th factual year
Oct         Jesus baptized 26 AD; Tiberius 15th year; Pilate was governor of Judea;
Nov          
Dec          
27 Jan   780      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun       2nd Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     16th   Tiberius begins 16th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
28 Jan   781      
Feb          
Mar         Pilate mints coin: "LIS" 16th year "Of Tiberius Emperor" with "Empress Julia"
Apr          
May          
Jun       3rd Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     17th   Tiberius begins 17th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
29 Jan   782      
Feb         During [AUC 782] Julia Augusta (Livia Drusilla) died at age 86 (Dio 58.2);
Mar         Pilate mints coin: "LIZ" 17th year "Of Tiberius Emperor" sans "Empress Julia"
Apr          
May          
Jun       4th Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     18th   Tiberius begins 18th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
30 Jan   783      
Feb          
Mar         Pilate mints coin: "LIH" 18th year "Of Tiberius Emperor"
Apr 202.4       Jesus crucified, April 3 (Gregorian) 30 AD; 18th year of Tiberius (Eusebius)
May          
Jun       5th Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     19th   Tiberius begins 19th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
31 Jan   784      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun       6th Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     20th   Tiberius begins 20th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
32 Jan   785      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun       7th Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     21st   Tiberius begins 21st factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
33 Jan   786      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun       8th Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     22nd   Tiberius begins 22nd factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
34 Jan   787      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr          
May          
Jun       9th Pilate still Prefect of Judea
Jul          
Aug          
Sep     23rd   Tiberius begins 23rd factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
35 Jan   788      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr         Tiberius entrusts entire eastern policy to Vitellius (Annals 6.32)
May         Vitellius 1st summer campaign against Artabanus & Parthians (Annals 6:38)
Jun       10th
Jul        
Aug          
Sep     24th   Tiberius begins 24th factual year
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          
36 Jan   789      
Feb          
Mar          
Apr         Samaritan embassy to Vitellius accuses Pilate of murder (Ant. 18.88)
May         Vitellius 2nd summer campaign against Artabanus & Parthians (Annals 6:38)
Jun       11th
Jul        
Aug       1st Vitellius sends Marcellus to Judea; orders Pilate to Rome (Ant. 18.88)
Sep     25th   Tiberius begins 25th factual year

Dangerous winter Mediterranean sailing conditions
Oct        
Nov        
Dec          
37 Jan   790      
Feb         Latest Pilate departs for 6-8 weeks Caesarea to Rome
Mar         March 16, Death of Tiberius; Vitellius received at Passover (Ant. 18.4:3)
Apr         Pilate arrives Rome after Tiberius death (Ant. 18.4.2)
May          
Jun          
Jul          
Aug          
Sep          
Oct          
Nov          
Dec          

 

Tiberius honors and years.

The following is excerpted from:

Finegan, Jack Handbook of Biblical Chronology, rev, Hendrickson Publishers, 1999; pp 89, 330-31

Key anchor dates are highlighted: 
    

Table 42. Events and Honors in the Life and Reign (Aug 19, AD 14 - Mar 16, AD 37) of Tiberius
B.C./AD
Month and Day
Chronology
42 B.C.
Nov 16
Birth of Tiberius Claudius Nero
13
Tiberius Consul I
9
Tiberius Imperator I
8
Imperator II
7
Consul II
6
July 1, 6 - June 30, 5
Tribunicia potestate I
5
July 1, 5 - June 30, 4
Tribunicia potestate II
4
July 1, 4 - June 30, 3
Tribunicia potestate III
3
July 1, 3 - June 30, 2
Tribunicia potestate IIII
2
July 1, 2 - June 30, 1
Tribunicia potestate V
        1 BC
AD 1        
2
3
4
June 26
Tiberius adopted by Augustus and designated as his successor; called Tiberius Julius Caesar
July 1, 4 - June 30, 5
Tribunicia potestate VI
5
July 1, 5 - June 30, 6
Tribunicia potestate VII
6
Imperator III
July 1, 6 - June 30, 7
Tribunicia potestate VIII
7
July 1, 7 - June 30, 8
Tribunicia potestate VIIII
8
July 1, 8 - June 30, 9
Tribunicia potestate X
9
Imperator IIII
July 1, 9 - June 30, 10
Tribunicia potestate XI
10
July 1, 10 - June 30, 11
Tribunicia potestate XII
10/11
Imperator V
11
Imperator VI
July 1, 11 - June 30, 12
Tribunicia potestate XIII
12
Tiberius governs the provinces jointly with Augustus
July 1, 12 - June 30, 13
Tribunicia potestate XIIII
13
July 1, 13 - June 30, 14
Tribunicia potestate XV
14
Imperator VII
Aug 19
Death of Augustus
c. Sept 12
Funeral of Augustus
Sept 17
Tiberius voted new head of state; called Tiberius Caesar Augustus
July 1, 14 - June 30, 15
Tribunicia potestate XVI
15
July 1, 15 - June 30, 16
Tribunicia potestate XVII
16
July 1, 16 - June 30, 17
Tribunicia potestate XVIII
17
July 1, 17 - June 30, 18
Tribunicia potestate XVIIII
18
Consul III
July 1, 18 - June 30, 19
Tribunicia potestate XX
19
July 1, 19 - June 30, 20
Tribunicia potestate XXI
20
July 1, 20 - June 30, 21
Tribunicia potestate XXII
21
Imperator VIII
Consul IIII
July 1, 21 - June 30, 22
Tribunicia potestate XXIII
22
July 1, 22 - June 30, 23
Tribunicia potestate XXIIII
23
July 1, 23 - June 30, 24
Tribunicia potestate XXV
24
July 1, 24 - June 30, 25
Tribunicia potestate XXVI
25
July 1, 25 - June 30, 26
Tribunicia potestate XXVII
26
July 1, 26 - June 30, 27
Tribunicia potestate XXVIII
27
July 1, 27 - June 30, 28
Tribunicia potestate XXVIIII
28
July 1, 28 - June 30, 29
Tribunicia potestate XXX
29
July 1, 29 - June 30, 30
Tribunicia potestate XXXI
30
July 1, 30 - June 30, 31
Tribunicia potestate XXXII
31
Consul V
July 1, 31 - June 30, 32
Tribunicia potestate XXXIII
32
July 1, 32 - June 30, 33
Tribunicia potestate XXXIIII
33
July 1, 33 - June 30, 34
Tribunicia potestate XXXV
34
July 1, 34 - June 30, 35
Tribunicia potestate XXXVI
35
July 1, 35 - June 30, 36
Tribunicia potestate XXXVII
36
July 1, 36 - Mar 16, 37
Tribunicia potestate XXXVIII
37
Mar 16
Death of Tiberius

570. According to Luke 3:1ff, it was in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar that the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the wilderness and that he went into the region about the Jordan preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. And at the time, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also was baptized and thus made his initial public appearance. The fifteenth year of Tiberius would appear to be an exact date, and no doubt it was such in the mind of the writer and probably also to most of the readers of that time, but the matter is not so simple to the modern student. Events and honors in the life and reign of Tiberius have been set forth above in Table 42. Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on Nov 16, A.U.C. 712 = 42 BC On June 26 A.U.C. 757 = AD 4, he was adopted by Augustus and designated his successor,157 from which time he was called Tiberius Julius Caesar.

On Oct 23, A.U.C. 765 = AD 12, he celebrated a triumph for his military victories in Germany and Pannonia. Referring to this event, Suetonius158 says that "the consuls caused a law to be passed soon after this that he should govern the provinces jointly with Augustus and hold the census with him." The date when Tiberius thus began to govern the provinces jointly with Augustus was probably AD 12,159 although arguments have been presented for putting it in AD 11 or 13.160 In this connection Tacitus describes Tiberius Nero as collega imperii, "colleague in the empire" (Annals 1.3), and some consider him joint emperor with Augustus from this time on.161

On Aug 19, A.U.C. 767 = AD 14, Augustus died, with the funeral on or around Sept 12. On Sept 17 the Senate met, voted the deceased emperor a deity, Divus Augustus, and voted his designated successor, Tiberius, the new head of state. As emperor he was known as Tiberius Caesar Augustus. So Tiberius ruled as a colleague of Augustus from AD 12, and as a successor of Augustus from Aug 19 (or from Sept 17 if you count from the vote of the Senate), AD 14, and his rule continued until his death on Mar 16, A.U.C. 790 = AD 37.162 In Table 150 a preliminary numbering of his regnal years is given. Column 1 numbers from the time when Tiberius began to govern jointly with Augustus, and column 2 from the first full calendar year after that. Column 3 numbers from the death of Augustus and the succession of Tiberius, and column 4 from the first full calendar year after that. A further series of brief tables (nos 140-156) is intended to recognize other variables in calendars and regnal years which could, at least in theory, be involved.

157 Dio, Roman History 55.13.1.
158 Tiberius, 21.
159 Suetonius, ed J.C. Rolfe (LCL), vol 1, 323.
160 Holzmeister, Chronologia vitae Christi, 66.
161 The Encyclopaedia Britannica 22:176.

TABLE 150. Regnal Years of Tiberius Caesar
A.U.C.
AD
Col.
1
Col.
2
Col.
3
Col.
4
765 12 Tiberius governs jointly with Augustus 1
766 13 2 1
767 14 Aug 19, death of Augustus. Sept 17, Tiberius named head of state 3 2 1
768 15 4 3 2 1
769 16 5 4 3 2
770 17 6 5 4 3
771 18 7 6 5 4
772 19 8 7 6 5
773 20 9 8 7 6
774 21 10 9 8 7
775 22 11 10 9 8
776 23 12 11 10 9
777 24 13 12 11 10
778 25 14 13 12 11
779 26 15 14 13 12
780 27 16 15 14 13
781 28 17 16 15 14
782 29 18 17 16 15
783 30 19 18 17 16
784 31 20 19 18 17
785 32 21 20 19 18
786 33 22 21 20 19
787 34 23 22 21 20
788 35 24 23 22 21
789 36 25 24 23 22
790 37 26 25 24 23


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