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Chronology of the Herods - Julian non-accession, inclusive reckoning

with events surrounding Herod the Great's death reconciled to a 5 B.C. September 15 lunar eclipse

Presented here is a chronology from 167 B.C. to A.D. 70 of events related directly or indirectly to Herod the Great from his appointment as governor of Galilee by his father Antipater to the death of his sons and heirs Archelaus, Antipas, and Philip.  The events are largely drawn from Josephus' Wars of the Jews and Antiquities of the Jews.  

Notable years and events are:

Temple rededicated and beginning of Hasmonean rule
Hyrcanus II becomes High Priest
Pompey captures Jerusalem and the temple, restores Hyrcanus II as High Priest
Antipater makes Herod governor of Galilee when Herod was 15 [emended to 25] years old
Herod appointed king by Rome; Parthians depose Hyrcanus II and make Antigonus king
Herod captures Jerusalem and has Antigonus killed
March 23 lunar eclipse, September 15 lunar eclipse, birth of Jesus Christ
Herod's death; Archelaus made ethnarch, Antipas and Philip each made tetrarch
January 9 lunar eclipse
Archelaus banished; Quirinius in Syria
Jesus Christ baptised in Tiberius' 15th year
"46 years to build Temple"
Crucifixion of Jesus Christ in Tiberius' 18th year
Philip died
Antipas deposed
Titus destroys the Temple

The purpose of the chronology is two fold, to determine:

  1. when Herod the Great died by synchronizing all significant dateable events to known historical events, and;
  2. which reckoning system(s) best reconcile with Josephus' reports

The Reign of Herod the Great: 47 B.C. to his death in 4 B.C. presents an analysis and conclusions drawn from the four chonological tables.

Each chronology is synchronized to several calendars and dating methods: 

The Julian calendar was not established until A.U.C. 709, prior to which the Roman calendar was a 354-day lunisolar calendar but intercalated haphazardly which causes some unaccounted months in the A.U.C. 708 calendar column.

The specific chronology below presumes non-accession, inclusive reckoning by Julian calendar beginning on January of each Julian year for dates and reigns of Jewish kings and priests.  That means that when counting years of someone's reign, each year is presumed to begin on January 1st and end December 31st as shown in the Julian column.  Consider, for example, the first reign of Hyrcanus II as Jewish high priest, reported by Josephus to have lasted 9 years.  Scroll down in the table below to -75 (B.C.) in the Julian column and note that in the Priest/King column, Hyrcanus II's first year ended Dec of -75 Julian and his 2nd year began Jan of -74 Julian, and further note that every regnal year thereafter changes on the Julian year boundary.

This Julian-reckoned chronology is further differentiated from years 7 B.C. to 1 B.C. to identify which lunar eclipse (5 B.C. March 23 or September 15) best reconciles with Josephus' reports relating to Herod's death and the succession of his heirs.

Tradeoff of portraying months in chronological tables:

Because these chronological tables are intended to demonstrate when events occur in the various calendar systems, and because the Julian and Hebrew calendar columns define both years and months within years, then of necessity events are shown as if "assigned" to specific months, and therein arises a potential misrepresentation.  The chronological tables misleadingly show events as if they were historically reported as occurring in specific months of specific years when actually they are undated.  For example:

Josephus only reports a duration of years for each of the Jewish High Priests; he does not report specific months when their reigns began and ended.  But to show how their reigns can reconcile with events in Herod's life (e.g. when Hyrcanus II was deposed by Antigonus who in turn was executed by Herod when Herod captured Jerusalem, etc.), it is necessary to "fit" their reigns into the chronologies, and because the chronological tables are defined as months within years, that means positioning their reigns and assigning a beginning and ending month that reconciles with any known fixed dates, such as Antiochus IV's desecration of the Temple, Pompey's capture of Jerusalem, Roman Consulships, Jewish feasts, eclipses, battles, and coins, etc.

Since Josephus reports the number of years which Hyrcanus II, Aristobulus II, and Antigonus each reigned, and that Aristobulus II's reign was ended by Pompey who restored Hyrcanus II who was then deposed by Antigonus who was killed when Herod captured Jerusalem; and since Josephus reported that Herod captured Jerusalem after a 5-month siege that began when winter ended in the 3rd year from Herod being appointed king by Rome; then the reigns of Hyrcanus II, Aristobulus II, and Antigonus must "fit" around the events of Pompey's and Herod's respective captures of Jerusalem 27 years apart on the fast on the 3rd month. 

Consequently, to achieve that "fit", the reigns of Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II are shown to begin and end on specific months as defined in the tables, months whose assignment was based not on any historically reported monthly dates but on "best fit" relative to other interrelated events.

Further, because every row in the chronological tables represents some particular month, then to show any event in the chronology requires that it be shown as occurring in some particular month, even though no specific month for that event is known to us historically.

A less confusing portrayal might have been to define the tables down to the level of only a year, instead of implying a knowledge of specific months.  But because the various calendars are offset by some number of months, and some years have more months in them than others due to intercalation, and because many significant events are in fact dated to a "season" and some to a specific month or number of months, then portrayal of months in the tables becomes necessary, which portrayal of calendar months then causes the misrepresentation of assigning months to all events when many aren't dated that precisely.

Doesn't that invalidate the chronology and render it uninformative, if not useless?

Yes and No.  Yes, if there were no warning that the tables imply monthly dates which in many cases history has not attested, or if the year or count of years failed to reconcile.  But No, when the count of years between events is correct, or the year of an event does reconcile in multiple calendars, or a series of events all fit within a specific timeframe, then the chronology is accurate to within a year and approximate to the month, and that is legitimately informative.  Further, exposing to scrutiny the number of months of travel by ambassadors and letter couriers, and showing which months have inclement weather during which troops don't move and ships don't sail, is preferable to ignorance. Consider two further examples of the tradeoffs:

Josephus reports Antigonus reigned 3 years and 3 months when Herod besieged him as winter ended, and that Herod captures Jerusalem after a siege of 5 months.  Accurate treatment of these reports requires a chronological table with specific months.

The Bible passage Mat 2:22 reports that after having fled to Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, Joseph heard that Archelaus reigned in Judea after Herod.  Because the chronological tables are all monthly entries, this reference had to be assigned to some monthly "cell", but the reference itself is undated lacking both a specific month and a specific year.  Being undated, it could have been shown anywhere between Archelaus' succession and when Jesus was twelve years old and was found in the Temple (Luk 2:42-46), however the entry most reasonably belongs closer to Archelaus' succession, but into what month and year should an otherwise undated reference be placed?

Consider also that every event actually occurred during some specific month - history just hasn't recorded which months those were, and the chronological tables show a hypothetical approximation for what those months might have been.  While the assignment of undated events to specific months is an approximation, being able to precisely count the durations of years (to within a month) between events yields an accurate demonstration that Josephus' reports regarding the death of Herod the Great do reconcile when properly reckoned.

To reiterate, the purpose of these chronologies is to identify what differences, if any, arise from using Julian vs. Tishri vs. Nisan reckoning for Josephus' reports of Jewish kings and priests (which requires that specific months dictate when regnal years begin and end), and determine a coherent, consistent chronology that reconciles Herod's life with independent events (such as eclipses prior to his death).   Additionally, some significant biblical synchronisms are:

Birth of Jesus Christ in 5 B.C., likely August
Joseph heard that Archelaus reigned in Judea after Herod (Mat 2:22)
46 years to build Temple (Joh 2:20)
Jesus Christ crucifixion in A.D. 30

The chronology tables are all the same except for the reckoning and eclipse-related differences explained above.  This is to facilitate side-by-side comparison.

The footnotes are all the same as well, collected on a common Herodian chronology notes page.  Because the text in the table is very compressed so as to fit multiple calendar columns across the screen, footnote superscripts become too small to readily recognize and so they have all been highlighted to draw attention to their presence.  It is recommended that to view a footnote, simply click on the highlighted hyperlink and your browser will switch pages and jump to the footnote.  You should then use the browsers 'back' button to return to the previous view of the chronological table.  Additionally, a copy of the footnote page can be opened in another browser tab or browser window.

Various table entries are color coded as follows:

Inconsistencies, differences, special circumstances
Hypothetical Jewish intercalary months
Roman intercalary months
Dates fixed absolutely from non-Josephean sources
Dates determined relatively from direct or indirect Josephus' references
Historical synchronisms
Biblical synchronisms
Arbitrary position to reconcile best with Josephean chronology, actual date unknown
Superscripted footnote references
Table format lacks extra space to fully portray all months after intercalation

The tables use HTML table tags of, essentially, 1 row per month to simultaneously portray multiple calendar systems on a monthly basis, calendars which by definition never align month-to-month and also differ by the number of days per month and months per year. When extra intercalated months have been inserted into a specific calendar column, some misalignment occurs.  This appears as not enough month "cells" in a given year, usually for the Hebrew calendar where the intercalation is irregular but counting and naming the months is desired.   This only affects which months have names assigned and corresponding event and reference descriptions, and is highlighted in red.  For example in Hebrew year 3722 A.M., there were not enough month "cells" to show the months of Sivan and Elul.  This table organization deficiency does not affect the count of years.

Herodian Chronology by non-accession, inclusive Julian reckoning - Herod's eclipse on 5 B.C. September 15:

Julian

Oly1

AUC2

Actian3

Roman
Ruler
4

Jerusalem5

Temple5

Herod6

Priest7

Hebrew

Event & Reference

year

mon

Antipas

Philip

Archelaus

Great

King7

A.M.

mon

-168

 Jan

3593

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

586

 May

 Jun

 Jul

153.1

 Aug

 Sep

3594

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-167

 Jan

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

587

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

153.2

 Aug

 Sep

3595

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

 Kis

Antiochus IV desecrates Temple (15 Kislev), Mattathias ben Johanan (from town of Modein and a lesser priest of the line of Jehoiarib & the family of Hasmon) leads and begins the "Hasmonean Revolt"  in year 145 of the Seleucid Era (1Macc 1:54, 2; Ant. 12.5.4)

-166

 Jan

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

588

 May

 Jun

 Jul

153.3

 Aug

 Sep

3596

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-165

 Jan

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

589

 May

 Jun

 Jul

153.4

 Aug

 Sep

3597

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-164

 Jan

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

590

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

154.1

 Aug

 Sep

3598

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

1

 Kis

Temple rededicated under leadership of Judas Maccabeus (Judah Maccabee), 3rd son of Mattathias on 25 Kislev (early December) in year 148 of the Seleucid Era (1Macc 4:52; Ant. 12.7.6)

 Dec

-163

 Jan

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

591

 May

 Jun

 Jul

154.2

 Aug

 Sep

3599

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

2

 Kis

 Dec

-162

 Jan

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

592

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

154.3

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3600

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

3

 Kis

-161

 Jan

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

593

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

154.4

 Aug

 Sep

3601

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

4

 Kis

 Dec

 

-153

601

The Roman calendar was lunisolar with 355 to 377 or 378 days intercalated haphazardly every 2nd or 3rd year, and originally reckoned from Martius 1 until A.U.C. 601 (153 BC) when it was reckoned from Januarius 1.

 

-80

 Jan

174.4

674

84

3681

Consuls: L. Cornelius L.f. Sulla Felix II; Q. Caecilius Q.f Metellus Pius

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

175.1

 Aug

 Sep

3682

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

85

 Kis

 Dec

-79

 Jan

675

Consuls: P. Servilius C.f. Vatia (Isauricus); Ap. Claudius Ap.f. Pulcher

 Feb

A.U.C. 675 Intercalaris ~5 February Julian

 

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

175.2

 Aug

 Sep

3683

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

86

 Kis

 Dec

-78

 Jan

676

Consuls: M. Aemilius Q.f Lepidus; Q. Lutatius Q.f. Catulus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

175.3

 Aug

 Sep

3684

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

87

 Kis

 Dec

-77

 Jan

677

Consuls: D. Iunius D.f. Brutus; Mam. Aemilius f. Lepidus Livianus

 Feb

A.U.C. 677 Intercalaris ~8 February Julian

 

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

175.4

 Aug

 Sep

3685

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

88

 Kis

 Dec

-76

 Jan

678

Consuls: Cn. Octavius M.f.; C. Scribonius C.f. Curio

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

176.1

 Aug

 Sep

3686

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

89

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

-75

 Jan

679

 She

Consuls: L. Octavius Cn.f.; C. Aurelius M.f. Cotta

 Feb

   Ada

A.U.C. 679 Intercalaris ~10 February Julian

 

 Mar

 

 Ad2

 Apr

Hyr 1

 Nis

Hyrcanus II becomes High Priest8

 May

 Jun

 Jul

176.2

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3687

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

90

 Kis

-74

 Jan

680

Hyr 2

 Tev

Consuls: L. Licinius L.f. Lucullus; M. Aurelius M.f. Cotta

 Feb

 She

 Mar

 Ada

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

176.3

 Aug

 Sep

3688

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

91

 Kis

 Dec

-73

 Jan

681

Hyr 3

Consuls: M. Terentius M.f. Varro Lucullus; C. Cassius L.f. Longinus

 Feb

A.U.C. 681 Intercalaris ~13 February Julian

 

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

176.4

 Aug

 Sep

3689

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

92

 Kis

 Dec

-72

 Jan

682

Hyr 4

Consuls: L. Gellius L.f. Poplicola; Cn. Cornelius Cn.f. Lentulus Clodianus

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

177.1

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3690

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

93

 Kis

-71

 Jan

683

Hyr 5

Consuls: P. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Sura; Cn. Aufidius Cn.f. Orestes

 Feb

A.U.C. 683 Intercalaris ~15 February Julian

 

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

177.2

 Aug

 Sep

3691

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

94

 Kis

 Dec

-70

 Jan

684

Hyr 6

Consuls: Cn. Pompeius Cn.f. Magnus; M. Licinius P.f. Crassus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

177.3

 Aug

 Sep

3692

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

95

 Kis

 Dec

-69

 Jan

685

Hyr 7

Consuls: Q. Hortensius L.f. Hortalus; Q. Caecilius C.f. Metellus (Creticus)

 Feb

 

A.U.C. 685 Intercalaris ~18 February Julian

 Mar

 Ad2

Hyrcanus II made king (Wars 1.6.1), Oly 177.3 consulship of Hortensius and Metallus (Ant. 14.1.2)

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

177.4

 Aug

 Sep

3693

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

96

 Kis

 Dec

-68

 Jan

686

Hyr 8

Consuls: L. Caecilius C.f. Metellus; Q. Marcius Q.f. Rex

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

178.1

 Aug

 Sep

3694

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

97

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

-67

 Jan

687

Hyr 9

 She

Consuls: C. Calpurnius Piso; M'. Acilius M'.f. Glabrio

 Feb

 Ada  

A.U.C. 687 Intercalaris ~20 February Julian

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

 Siv

 Jul

178.2

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3695

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

98

 Kis

Hyrcanus II first ruled 9 years (Ant. 20.10.1)

-66

 Jan

688

Ari 1

 Tev

Consuls: M'. Aernilius Lepidus; L. Volcacius Tullus
Aristobulus II is King and High Priest

 Feb

 She

 Mar

 Ada

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

 Siv

 Jul

178.3

 Aug

 Sep

3696

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

99

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

-65

 Jan

689

Ari 2

 She

Consuls: L. Aurelius M.f. Cotta; L. Manlius L.f. Torquatus

 Feb

 Ada

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

178.4

 Aug

 Sep

3697

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

100

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

-64

 Jan

690

Ari 3

 She

Consuls: L. Julius L.f. Caesar; C. Marcius C.f. Figulus

 Feb

 Ada

A.U.C. 690 Intercalaris ~12 February Julian

 

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

 Siv

 Jul

179.1

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3698

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

101

 Kis

-63

 Jan

691

Jul 1

Ari 4

 Tev

Consuls: M. Tullius M.f. Cicero; C. Antonius M.f. Hybrida
Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus

 Feb

 She

 Mar

 Ada

 Apr

1

 Nis

Pompey receives Jerusalem (Ant. 14.4.2; Wars 1.7.2), begins 3-month siege of Temple (Wars 1.7.4)

 May

 Iya

 Jun

Hyr 1

 Siv

Aristobulus II is King and High Priest for 3 years and 3 months (Ant. 20.10.1) or 3 years and 6 months (Ant. 14.6.1) until captured by Pompey.8
Pompey enters Temple 3rd month (Wars 1.7.4), day of the fast [23 Sivan] of the 179th Olympiad when Caius Antonius and Marcus Tullius Cicero were consuls (Ant. 14.4.3); Pompey restores Hyrcanus II as High Priest (Ant. 14.4:4) and as governor of the nation without a crown (Ant. 20.10.1)

 Jul

179.2

 Aug

 Sep

3699

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

102

 Kis

 Dec

-62

 Jan

692

Jul 2

Hyr 2

Consuls: D. Junius M.f. Silanus; L. Licinius L.f. Murena

 Feb

 Mar

2

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

179.3

 Aug

 Sep

3700

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

103

 Kis

 Dec

693

Jul 3

Consuls: M. Pupius M.f. Piso Frugi Calpurnianus; M. Valerius M.f. Messalla Niger

-61

 Jan

Hyr 3

 Feb

A.U.C. 693 Intercalaris ~5 February Julian

 

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

3

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

179.4

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3701

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

104

 Kis

-60

 Jan

694

Jul 4

Hyr 4

Consuls: Q. Caecilius Q.f. Metellus Celer; L. Afranius A.f.

 Feb

 Mar

4

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

180.1

 Aug

 Sep

3702

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

105

 Kis

 Dec

695

Jul 5

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar; M. Calpurnius C.f. Bibulus

-59

 Jan

Hyr 5

 Feb

 Mar

5

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

180.2

 Aug

 Sep

3703

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

106

 Kis

 Dec

696

Jul 6

Consuls: L. Calpurnius L.f. Piso Caesoninus; A. Gabinius A.f.

-58

 Jan

Hyr 6

 

A.U.C. 696 Intercalaris 23 days ~28 January Julian

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

6

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

180.3

 Aug

 Sep

3704

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

107

 Kis

 Dec

697

Jul 7

Consuls: P. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Spinther; Q. Caecilius Q.f. Metellus Nepos

-57

 Jan

Hyr 7

 Feb

 Mar

7

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

180.4

 Aug

 Sep

3705

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

108

 Kis

 Dec

698

Jul 8

Consuls: Cn. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Marcellinus; L. Marcius L.f. Philippus

-56

 Jan

Hyr 8

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

8

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

181.1

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3706

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

699

Jul 9

109

 Kis

Consuls: Cn. Pompeius Cn.f. Magnus II; M. Licinius P.f. Crassus II

-55

 Jan

Hyr 9

 

A.U.C. 699 Intercalaris 22 days ~19 January Julian

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

9

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

181.2

 Aug

 Sep

3707

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

110

 Kis

 Dec

700

Jul 10

Consuls: L. Domitius Cn.f. Ahenobarbus; Ap. Claudius Ap.f. Pulcher

-54

 Jan

Hyr 10

 Feb

 Mar

10

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

181.3

 Aug

 Sep

3708

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

111

 Kis

 Dec

701

Jul 11

Consuls: Cn. Domitius M.f. Calvinus; M. Valerius Messalla Rufus

-53

 Jan

Hyr 11

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

11

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

181.4

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3709

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

702

Jul 12

112

 Kis

Consuls: Cn. Pompeius Cn.f. Magnus III; Q. Caecilius Q.f. Metellus Pius Scipio

-52

 Jan

Hyr 12

 

A.U.C. 702 Intercalaris 23 days ~11 January Julian

 Feb

 Mar

12

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

182.1

 Aug

 Sep

3710

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

113

 Kis

 Dec

703

Jul 13

Consuls: Ser. Sulpicius Q.f. Rufus; M. Claudius M.f. Marcellus

-51

 Jan

Hyr 13

 Feb

 Mar

13

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

182.2

 Aug

 Sep

3711

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

704

Jul 14

114

 Kis

Consuls: L. Aemilius M.f. Paullus Lepidus; C. Claudius C.f. Marcellus

 Dec

-50

 Jan

Hyr 14

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

14

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

182.3

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3712

 Tis

 Nov

705

Jul 15

 Hes

Consuls: C. Claudius M.f. Marcellus; L. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Crus

 Dec

115

 Kis

-49

 Jan

Hyr 15

 Feb

 Mar

15

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

182.4

 Aug

 Sep

3713

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

Caesarian Era at Antioch begins 1 Oct

 Nov

706

Jul 16

116

 Kis

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar II; P. Servilius P.f. Vatia Isauricus

 Dec

-48

 Jan

Hyr 16

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

16

 Nis

 May

 Jun

Julius Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus 7 June 48 B.C.

 Jul

183.1

Julius Caesar lands at Alexandria (Caes. 35.1; Dio 42.7.3)

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3714

 Tis

 Nov

707

Jul 17

 Hes

Consuls: Q. Fufius Q.f. Calenus; P. Vatinius P.f.

 Dec

117

 Kis

Battle of Pelusium; Antipater seizes the city (Dio 41.41.1-2; Wars 1.9.3, Ant. 14.8.1)

-47

 Jan

Hyr 17

Battle of Jewish Camp; Antipater rescues Mithridates (Wars 1.9.4, Ant. 14.8.2)

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

17

 Nis

Julius Caesar confirms Hyrcanus II as ethnarch and High Priest and also makes Antipator procurator of Judea (Ant. 14.8.5, 14.10, Wars 1.10.3); Antipater makes Herod governor of Galilee when Herod was 15 [emended to 25 33] years old (Ant. 14.9.2) "very young" (Wars 1.10.4)

 May

 Jun

 Jul

183.2

 Aug

 Sep

3715

 Tis

 Oct

708

Jul 18

 Hes

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar III; M. Aemilius M.f. Lepidus

 Nov

118

 Kis

 Dec

A.U.C. 708 Intercalaris 23 days ~4 Dec Julian

 

-46

 Jan

Hyr 18

 Feb

 Mar

18

 Nis

 Apr

 May

 Jun

 Jul

183.3

 Aug

 Sep

3716

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 

A.U.C. 708 ~1st Oct additional Intercalary month

 Nov

119

 Kis

 

A.U.C. 708 ~1 Nov 2nd additional intercalary month

 Dec

-45

 Jan

709

Jul 19

Hyr 19

Julian Calendar established
Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar IV (without colleague)

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

19

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

183.4

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3717

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

120

 Kis

-44

 Jan

710

Jul 20

Hyr 20

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar V; M. Antonius M.f.

 Feb

 Mar

Julius Caesar dies Mar 15 A.U.C. 710, Gaius Octavian succeeds

 Apr

20

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

184.1

 Aug

 Sep

3718

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

121

 Kis

 Dec

-43

 Jan

711

Oct 1

Hyr 21

Caesar (Octavian) 1st regnal year
Consuls: C. Vibius C.f. Pansa Caetronianus; A. Hirtius A.f.

 Feb

 Mar

21

 Nis

 Apr

Caesar (Octavian) lmperator I

 May

 Jun

 Jul

184.2

 Aug

Caesar (Octavian) Consul I

 Sep

3719

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

122

 Kis

 Dec

-42

 Jan

712

Oct 2

Hyr 22

Consuls: M. Aemilius M.f. Lepidus II; L. Munatius L.f. Plancus

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

22

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

184.3

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3720

 Tis

Caesar (Octavian) & Antony defeat Cassius & Brutus at Philippi 23 October, 42 B.C.

 Nov

 Hes

Antony, with Hyrcanus II's advice, makes Herod & Phasaelus tetrarchs of Judea (Ant. 14.13.1, Wars 1.12.5)

 Dec

123

 Kis

-41

 Jan

713

Oct 3

Hyr 23

Consuls: L. Antonius M.f.; P. Servilius P.f. Vatia Isauricus II

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

23

 Nis

 May

 Jun

 Jul

184.4

 Aug

 Sep

3721

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

124

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

-40

 Jan

714

Oct 4

Hyr 24

 She

Consuls: Cn. Domitius M.f. Calvinus II; C. Asinius Cn.f. Pollio

 Feb

 Ada

 

 Mar

24

 Nis

 

 Apr

 Iya

 

 May

Ant 1

 Siv

Hyrcanus II ruled 9 + 24 years (Ant. 20.10.1) when deposed byParthians who made Antigonus king [~Pentecost (in Sivan) when Lysanias succeeded Ptolomy of Chalcis] (Ant. 14.13, Wars 1.13)9 Herod flees Jerusalem by road to Pelusium, then sails to Alexandria; Herod sails Alexandria to Rhodes in stormy wintery weather and equips a trireme at Rhodes; Herod sails from Rhodes to Brundisium then to Rome (Wars 1.14.2-3, Ant. 14.14.2-3)10

 Jun

 Tam

 Jul

185.1

 Av

 Aug

 Elu

 Sep

3722

 Tis

 Oct

Her 1

 Hes

Antony & Octavian make Treaty of Brundisium (Oct)
Herod made king by Octavian & Antony 184th Oly, cos. Calvinus & Pollio; 7 days later, Herod sails Rome to Ptolemais (without trouble or delay) and marched thru Galilee (Ant. 14.14.5-15.1, Wars 1.15.3) 10

 Nov

125

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

-39

 Jan

715

Oct 5

Her 2

Ant 2

 She

Consuls: L. Marcius L.f. Censorinus; C. Calvisius C.f. Sabinus

 Feb

 Ada

 Mar

 Ad2




Herod raises an army and campaigns throughout Galilee, Judea and Samaria against Antigonus, capturing Joppa and breaking sieges at Masada and Ressa but ending in defeat at the walls of Jerusalem before entering "winter quarters" (Ant. 14.15.1-3, Wars 1.15.3-6).10

 Apr

25

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

 Siv

 Jul

185.2

 Aug

 Elu

 Sep

3723

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

126

 Kis

Antony dispatched lieutenants, in A.U.C. 715 while not yet in winter quarters, to Herod in Judea to collect tribute in exchange for kingship (Appian Civil Wars 5.8.75)

 Dec

 Tev

"winter quarters" (Ant. 14 15.3-4)

-38

 Jan

716

Oct 6

Her 3

Ant 3

 She

Caesar (Octavian) lmperator III
Consuls: Ap. Claudius C.f. Pulcher; C. Norbanus C.f. Flaccus

 Feb

 Ada

 Mar

26

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

 Siv

 Jun

 Tam

 Jul

185.3

 Av

 Aug

 Elu

 Sep

3724













126

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

127

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

"depth of winter" (Ant. 14.15.12)

-37

 Jan

717

Oct 7

Her 4

Ant 4

 She

Consuls: M. Vipsanius L.f. Agrippa; L. Caninius L.f. Gallus

 Feb

 Ada

Herod begins siege of Jerusalem "when winter was over", 3rd year since being made king at Rome (Ant. 14.15.14, Wars 1.17.8) Antigonus reigned 3 years and 3 months when Herod besieged him (Ant. 20.10.1)12

 Mar

 Ad2

Herod issues his "year 3" bronze coins11

 Apr

2713

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

113

Her 1

 Siv

Herod captures Jerusalem after siege of 5 months (Wars 1.18.2) or 6 months (Wars 5.9.4); Agrippa & Gallus were consuls [A.U.C. 717], 185th Oly, 3rd month on the fast [23 Sivan] 27 years after Pompey, ending 126 years of Hasmonean rule (Ant. 14.16.4); Herod has Antigonus killed (Ant. 14.16.4) 14

 Jul

185.4

 Tam

Herod appoints Ananel high priest (Ant. 15.2.4)

 Aug

 Av

 Sep

 Elu

 Oct

3725

 Tis

 Nov

 Hes

 Dec

 Kis

-36

 Jan

718

Oct 8

Her 5

Her 2

Caesar (Octavian) lmperator IV
Consuls: L. Gellius L.f. Poplicola; M. Cocceius Nerva

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

2

 Siv

 Jul

186.1

Alexandra petitions for Aristobulus III (age 16) as high priest (Ant. 15.2.6)

 Aug

 Sep

3726

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

 Kis

 Dec

-35

 Jan

719

Oct 9

Her 6

Her 3

Consuls: L. Cornificius L.f.; Sex. Pompeius Sex.f.

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

3

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

186.2

Herod deposes Ananel, appoints Aristobulus III (age 17) high priest (Ant. 15.3.1)

 Aug

 Sep

3727

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-34

 Jan

720

Oct 10

Her 7

Her 4

Caesar (Octavian) lmperator V
Consuls: M. Antonius M.f. II; L. Scribonius L.f. Libo

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

4

 Siv

 Jul

186.3

 Aug

 Sep

 Oct

3728

 Tis

Aristobulus III (age 18-) murdered, Herod reappoints Ananel high priest (Ant. 15.3.3)

 Nov

 Dec

-33

 Jan

721

Oct 11

Her 8

Her 5

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. II; L. Volcacius L.f. Tullus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

5

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

186.4

 Aug

 Sep

3729

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-32

 Jan

722

Oct 12

Her 9

Her 6

Consuls: Cn. Domitius L.f. Ahenobarbus; C. Sosius C.f.

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

6

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

187.1

 Aug

 Sep

3730

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-31

 Jan

723

Oct 13

Her 10

Her 7

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. III; M. Valerius M.f. Messalla Corvinus

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

earthquake evidence at Qumran; Battle of Actium (Sep 2) at its height in Herod's 7th year, an earthquake in the spring (Wars 1.19.3)

 May

 Iya

 Jun

7

 Jul

187.2

 Av

 Aug

 Elu

Battle of Actium (Sep 2=Elul 13) in Herod's 7th year, an earthquake (Ant. 15.5.1,2)

 Sep

1

3731

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-30

 Jan

724

Oct 14

Her 11

Her 8

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. IV; M. Licinius M.f. Crassus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

8

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

187.3

 Aug

Antony & Cleopatra die

 Sep

2

3732

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-29

 Jan

725

Oct 15

Her 12

Her 9

Caesar (Octavian) Imperator VII
Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. V; Sex. Appuleius Sex.f.

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

9

 Siv

 Jul

187.4

 Aug

 Sep

3

 Oct

3733

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

-28

 Jan

726

Oct 16

Her 13

Her 10

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. VI; M. Vipsanius L.f. Agrippa II

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

10

 Siv

 Jul

188.1

 Aug

 Sep

4

3734

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-27

 Jan

727

Aug 17

Her 14

Her 11

Caesar (Octavian) named "Augustus"
Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. VII; M. Vipsanius L.f. Agrippa III

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

11

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

188.2

 Aug

 Sep

5

3735

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-26

 Jan

728

Aug 18

Her 15

Her 12

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus VIII; T. Statilius T.f. Taurus II

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

12

 Siv

 Jul

188.3

Herod sends 500 troops to Aelius Gallus' v Ethiopians (Ant. 15.9.3)

 Aug

Herod deposes Jesus, son of Phabet (Phiabi) of the high priesthood and appoints Simon, son of Boethus and weds Simon's daughter (Ant. 15.9.3)

 Sep

6

 Oct

3736

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

-25

 Jan

729

Aug 19

Her 16

Her 13

Caesar Augustus Imperator VIII
Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus IX; M. Junius M.f. Silanus

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

13

 Siv

 Jul

188.4

Drought in Herod's 13th year, buys grain from Petronius of Egypt (Ant. 15.9.1-2)

 Aug

 Sep

7

3737

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-24

 Jan

730

Aug 20

Her 17

Her 14

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus X; C. Norbanus C.f. Flaccus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

14

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

189.1

Aelius Gallus, governor of Egypt, campaign against Sabos king of Arabia Felix in Augustus' 10th consul (Dio History 53.29.3) with 500 soldiers supplied by Herod in his 14th year (Ant.15.9.1,3)

 Aug

Herod deposes Jesus, son of Phabet (Phiabi) of the high priesthood and appoints Simon, son of Boethus and weds Simon's daughter (Ant. 15.9.3)

 Sep

8

3738

 Tis

Herod begins construction of a citadel after his wedding (Ant. 15.9.4)

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-23

 Jan

731

Aug 21

Her 18

Her 15

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus XI; A. Terentius A. f. Varro Murena

 Feb

Caesar Augustus gives Trachonitis, Batanea and Aurantis to Herod (Wars 1.20.4)15

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

Herod began rebuilding Temple (ναὸν) in 15th year (Wars. 1.21.1) 16

 May

 Iya

 Jun

15

 Siv

 Jul

189.2

 Aug

 Sep

9

 Oct

3739

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

-22

 Jan

732

Aug 22

Her 19

Her 16

Consuls: M. Claudius M.f. Marcellus Aeserninus;. L. Arruntius L.f.

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

16

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

189.3

Herod begins 12-year construction of Caesarea (Ant.15.9.6)

 Aug

 Sep

10

3740

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-21

 Jan

733

Aug 23

Her 20

Her 17

Consuls: M. Lollius M.f.; Q. Aemilius M'.f. Lepidus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

17

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

189.4

 Aug

 Sep

11

3741

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-20

 Jan

734

Aug 24

Her 21

Her 18

Consuls: M. Appuleius Sex.f.; P. Silius P.f. Nerva

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

Herod had already reigned 17 years when Caesar Augustus came into Syria (Ant. 15.10.3) in spring when Marcus Apuleius and Publius Silius were consuls (Dio History 54.7.4-6)

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

18

 Siv

 Jul

190.1

Herod begins 10-year construction of Caesarea

 Aug

1

 Elu

Herod began rebuilding Temple (νεὼν) in 18th year (Ant. 15.11.1)
Herod erected Temple (ναὸν) on new foundations (Ant. 15.11.3)
Temple (ναὸς) was built of stones (Ant. 15.11.3)
cloister looked to the gates of the temple (νεὼ) (Ant. 15.11.3)

 Sep

12

3742

 Tis

2

 Oct

3

 Nov

4

 Dec

5

-19

 Jan

735

Aug 25

Her 22

Her 19

Consuls: C. Sentius C.f. Satuminus; Q. Lucretius Q.f. Vespillo

 Feb

7

 Mar

 Nis

8

 Apr

 Iya

9

 May

19

 Siv

10

 Jun

11

 Jul

190.2

12

 Aug

2

 Elu

13

 Sep

13

3743

 Tis

14

 Oct

15

 Nov

16

 Dec

17

-18

 Jan

736

Aug 26

Her 23

Her 20

Consuls: P. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Marcellinus; Cn. Cornelius L.f. Lentulus
18 Temple (ναοῦ) built by priests in 1 year 6 months (Ant.15.11.6)17

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

20

 Siv

 Jul

190.3

 Aug

3

 Elu

 Sep

14

3744

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-17

 Jan

737

Aug 27

Her 24

Her 21

Consuls: C. Furnius C.f.; C. Junius C.f. Silanus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

21

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

190.4

 Aug

4

 Elu

 Sep

15

3745

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-16

 Jan

738

Aug 28

Her 25

Her 22

Consuls: L. Domitius Cn.f. Ahenobarbus; P. Cornelius P.f. Scipio

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

22

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

191.1

 Aug

5

 Elu

 Sep

16

3746

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-15

 Jan

739

Aug 29

Her 26

Her 23

Consuls: M. Livius L.f. Drusus Libo; L. Calpurnius L.f. Piso Frugi

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

23

 Siv

 Jul

191.2

 Aug

 Sep

17

6

 Elu

 Oct

3747

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

-14

 Jan

740

Aug 30

Her 27

Her 24

Consuls: M. Licinius M.f. Crassus; Cn. Cornelius Cn.f. Lentulus (Augur)

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

24

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

191.3

 Aug

7

 Elu

 Sep

18

3748

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-13

 Jan

741

Aug 31

Her 28

Her 25

Consuls: Ti. Claudius Ti.f.; Nero. P. Quinctilius Sex.f. Varus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

25

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

191.4

 Aug

8

 Elu

 Sep

19

3749

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-12

 Jan

742

Aug 32

Her 29

Her 26

Consuls: M. Valerius M.f. Messalla Barbatus Appianus; P. Sulpicius P.f. Quirinius

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

Herod built cloisters and outer enclosures in 8 years (Ant.15.11.5)

 Jun

26

 Siv

 Jul

192.1

 Aug

 Sep

20

9

 Elu

 Oct

3750

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

-11

 Jan

743

Aug 33

Her 30

Her 27

Consuls: Q. Aelius Q.f. Tubero; Paullus Fabius Q.f. Maximus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

27

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

192.2

 Aug

10

 Elu

 Sep

21

3751

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-10

 Jan

744

Aug 34

Her 31

Her 28

Consuls: Africanus Fabius Q.f. Maximus; Iullus Antonius M.f.

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

28

 Siv

 Jul

192.3

Herod completes building Cesarea in 10 years in his 28th year in 192nd Olympiad (Ant. 16.5.1) or completes in 12 years (Ant. 15.9.6)

 Aug

 Sep

22

11

 Elu

 Oct

3752

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

-9

 Jan

745

Aug 35

Her 32

Her 29

Consuls: Nero Claudius Ti.f. Drusus; T. Quinctius T.f. Crispinus

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

29

 Siv

 Jul

192.4

 Aug

12

 Elu

 Sep

23

3753

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-8

 Jan

746

Aug 36

Her 33

Her 30

Consuls: C. Marcius L.f. Censorinus; C. Asinius C.f. Gallus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

30

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

193.1

 Aug

13

 Elu

 Sep

24

3754

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

-7

 Jan

747

Aug 37

Her 34

Her 31

Consuls: Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Nero II; Cn. Calpurnius Cn.f. Piso

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

31

 Siv

 Jul

193.2

 Aug

 Sep

2521

14

 Elu

 Oct

3755

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

-6

 Jan

748

Aug 38

Her 35

Her 32

Consuls: D. Laelius D.f. Balbus; C. Antistius C.f. Vetus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

 Siv

 Jun

32

 Tam

 Jul

193.3

 Av

 Aug

15

 Elu

 Sep

2621

3756

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

Herod demands Pheroras divorce his wife (believing she foments division), but Pheroras refuses.  Herod forbids Antipater from talking with Pheroras' wife, which they disobey (Ant. 17.3.1). Antipater writes to friends at Rome requesting they ask Herod to send Antipater to Rome. (Ant. 17.3.2) [post 49-56 days18]

-5

 Jan

749

Aug 39

Her 36

Her 33

 She

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus XII; L. Cornelius P.f. Sulla

 Feb

 Ada

Antipater's friends request he be sent to Rome (Ant. 17.3.2) [post 49-56 days18]

 Mar

 Nis

High Priest Matthias recuses himself from officiating the fast (Ant. 17.6.4)19a
Total lunar eclipse 5 BC Mar 23; Ta’anit Bechorim fast 1 day earlier, Nisan 1419a

 Apr

 Iya

Herod receives requests that Antipater be sent to Rome; Herod sends Antipater to Augustus with gifts and Herod's will making Antipater heir (Ant. 17.3.2); [Archelaus & Philip will be accused 7 months hence (Ant. 17.4.3)]
Herod discovers a murder plot and Saturninus sends the conspirators (Corinthus and Fabatus) to Rome (Ant. 17.3.2)21.

 May

33

 Siv

Herod retires Pheroras to Pheroras' tetrarchy and Pheroras declares he'll not return until Herod is dead. Pheroras hears Herod is ill but won't return to Jerusalem. Pheroras falls ill and dies [suicide by poison arranged from Antipater] and is buried by Herod in Jerusalem (Ant. 17.3.3).

 Jun

 Tam

Herod discovers Antipater's conspiracy and contrived trip to Rome (Ant. 17.4.1).  Herod further discovers that Antipater arranged for poison for Pheroras to use on Herod, but when Pheroras fell ill and was cared for by Herod, Pheroras instead poisoned himself out of guilt (Ant. 17.4.2).

 Jul

193.4

 Av

Herod further discovers that his wife, the daughter of Simon, son of Boethus, whom Herod had appointed High Priest (Ant. 15.9.3) knew of the conspiracy, so Herod divorces her and deposes Simon, and appoints Matthias, son of Theophilus, as High Priest (Ant.17.4.2).

 Aug

16

 Elu

Likely month of Jesus' birth prior to Herod's death in 4 B.C.

 Sep

2721

3757

 Tis

High Priest Matthias recuses himself from officiating the fast (Ant. 17.6.4)19b
Total lunar eclipse 5 BC Sep 15; Yom Kippur fast 4 days earlier, Tishri 1019b

 Oct

 Hes

Antipater sails home from Rome (Ant. 17.5.1)22 [sail 12-17 days18]

 Nov

 Kis

Herod receives letters from friends at Rome and Antipater, accusing Archelaus & Philip, 7 months elapsed since Antipater fled to Rome (Ant. 17.4.3).
Herod writes to Antipater urging him come home quickly (Ant. 17.5.1) [post 49-56 days18] but Antipater, enroute from Rome, intercepts Herod's letter at Celenderis23 in Cilicia and then continues home to Jerusalem (Ant. 17.5.1); Varus was in Jerusalem (Wars 1.31.5), to succeed Saturninus as president of Syria (Ant. 17.5.2)21, when Herod asked Varus to judge Antipater the next day (Ant. 17.5.2). Varus judges trial of Antipater and more witnesses come forward; Varus returns to Antioch without rendering a verdict (Ant. 17.5.3-6);  Herod intercepts letters of greater conspiracy by Antipater with Antiphilus and Acme; Herod twice sends messengers to Augustus regarding Antipater's guilt (Ant. 17.5.7-8)24 [post/courier 49-56 days18]

 Dec

 

 Tev

Herod (about age 70) falls into distemper, changes his will making Antipas his heir (Ant. 17.6.1)25; Thinking Herod's distemper incurable, Matthias, son of Margalothus and Judas, son of Saripheus, incite young men to tear down a golden eagle Herod had erected over the temple gate (Ant. 17.6.2). 40+ young men hear a false report of Herod's death and pull down the golden eagle, but were caught and brought before Herod. Herod has these men, Matthias, and Judas sent to Jericho. Herod calls the Jewish leaders to assemble in the theater [θέατρον at Jerusalem]26 to defend his erecting the golden eagle and accuse the rebels (Ant. 17.6.3);
[Herod then leaves Jerusalem to reside in the winter palace at Jericho.]

-4

 Jan

750

Aug 40

 

Her 37

Her 34

 She

Consuls: C. Calvisius C.f. Sabinus; L. Passienus Rufus
Herod deposes Matthias of the high priesthood and appoints Joazar (Matthias's wife's brother) as high priest, and burns alive Matthias, son of Margalothus and Judas, son of Saripheus with their companions (Ant. 17.6.4)20b.
[Herod's letters & messengers to Augustus arrive in Rome24 and they mail Augustus' reply (post 49-56 days18); Augustus kills Acme for conspiring with Antipater (Ant. 17.7.1)]

 Feb

 

 Ada

Herod's illness increases greatly; he sends for physicians and follows their prescriptions (Ant. 17.6.5).

 Mar

 

 Ad2

Herod travels to Callirrhoe, bathes in warm baths, and returns to Jericho; where Herod commands Jewish leaders to Jericho, but holds them in the hippodrome [ἱππόδρομον at Jericho26] (Ant. 17.6.5);  Letters arrive from Rome with permission to kill Antipater; Herod pares an apple; Herod has Antipater killed; Herod alters his will making Archelaus heir25 and dies 5 days later at Jericho having reigned 34 years since killing Antigonus and 37 years since being made king by the Romans. (Ant. 17.8.1 Wars 1.33.8); Jewish leaders are released from the hippodrome, Ptolemy reads Herod's will, soldiers acclaim Archelaus king  (Ant. 17.8.2); Funeral procession from Jericho and burial at Herodium (Ant. 17.8.3)

 Apr

 

 Nis

Archelaus morns 7 days, then hears people's petitions and feasts with friends  (Ant. 17.8.4); Passover and Unleavened Bread are soon [April 11], rebellion breaks out due to anger at Herod's burning of Matthias and Judas, and impatience with Archelaus promises (Ant. 17.9.1-2).  Archelaus uses army and horsemen to suppress the rebellion (3,000 killed) and sends everyone home from the festival (Ant. 17.9.3); Archelaus and Nicolaus of Damascus travel to Rome to have Augustus confirm Archelaus as Herod's heir, Antipas also travels to Rome to contest Herod's will and have Augustus affirm Herod's prior will (Ant. 17.9.3-4) [sail 57-75 days18]

     

 Iya

Varus informs Augustus that after Archelaus sailed the whole nation was in tumult.  Varus left a legion at Jerusalem under Sabinus (the procurator) and Varus returned to Antioch.  But Sabinus used the legion as a personal guard while he plundered the nation. (Ant. 17.10.1); Then as Pentecost approached, a great multitude of Jews rebelled against Sabinus. (Ant. 17.10.2).  Sabinus informs Varus of the rebellion and Varus brings 2 more legions from Syria and puts down the revolt and returns to Antioch, again leaving a legion at Jerusalem (Ant. 17.10.9-10).

 May

34

 

 Siv

Sivan 6th is Pentecost;
Augustus and Gaius Caesar28 (Augustus' grandson and adopted son) hear the arguments of Archelaus, Nicolaus and Antipas (Ant. 17.9.5-7)25;
An embassage of Jews went to Rome to plead with Augustus against Archelaus to let the Jews live under their own laws.  A few days after hearing all pleadings, Augustus decides to make Archelaus an ethnarch and Antipas and Philip tetrarchs (Ant. 17.11.4); Archelaus departs Rome for Judea (Ant. 17.13.1) [sail 12-17 days18]

 Jun

1

1

1

 Tam

Archelaus arrives in Judea as an "Ethnarch"and deposes the high priest Joazar and appoints Eleazar as high priest (Ant. 17.13.1)

 Jul

194.1

 Av

 Aug

17

 Elu

 Sep

28

3758

 Tis

Joseph heard that Archelaus reigned in Judea after Herod (Mat 2:22)

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

-3

 Jan

751

Aug 41

2

2

2

38

35

 She

Consuls: L. Cornelius L.f. Lentulus; M. Valerius M.f. Messalla Messallinus
Tertullian, Irenaeus, Origen record Augustus' 41st year for Christ's birth

 Feb

 Ada

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

35

 Iya

 Siv

 May

 Tam

 Jun

 Av

 Jul

194.2

18

 Elu

 Aug

3759

 Tis

 Sep

29

 Hes

 Oct

 Kis

 Nov

 Tev

 Dec

 She

-2

 Jan

752

Aug 42

3

3

3

39

36

 Ada

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus XIII; M. Plautius M.f. Silvanus
Eusebius dates Augustus' 42nd year for Christ's birth (Church Hist 1.5.2)
Orosius double dates A.U.C. 752 and Augustus' 42nd year for Christ's birth (History 6.22, 7.2, 7.3)

 Feb

 Nis

 Mar

 Iya

 Apr

36

 Siv

 May

 Tam

 Jun

 Av


Gaius Caesar in Rome (Dio, lv.10.6 f., 10.17)28

 Jul

194.3

19

 Elu

 Aug

3760

 Tis

 Sep

30

 Hes

 Oct

 Kis

 Nov

 Tev

 Asarah B’Tevet fast on Tevet 10

 Dec

 She

-1 BC

 Jan

753

Aug 43

4

4

4

40

37

 Ada

Consuls: Cossus Cornelius Cn.f. Lentulus; L. Calpurnius Cn.f. Piso
Total lunar eclipse 1 BC Jan 9;

 Feb

 Ad2

 Nis

Gaius Caesar departs Rome at latest28

 Mar

 Iya

 Apr

 Siv

Gaius Caesar could not be present28 to hear the arguments of Archelaus, Nicolaus and Antipas (Ant. 17.9.5-7)25; Too late for Philip to found Caesarea Paneas29

 May

37

 Tam

 Jun

 Av

 Jul

194.4

20

 Elu

 Aug

3761

 Tis

 Sep

31

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

 AD 1

 Jan

754

Aug 44

5

5

5

Consuls: C. Caesar Aug.f; L. Aemilius Paulli f. Paullus

 Feb

 Nis

 Mar

 Iya

 Apr

38

 Siv

 May

 Jun

 Jul

195.1

21

 Elu

 Aug

3762

 Tis

 Sep

32

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

2

 Jan

755

Aug 45

6

6

6

Consuls: P. Vinicius M.f; P. Alfenus P.f. Varus

 Feb

 Ad2

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

39

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

195.2

 Aug

22

 Elu

 Sep

33

3763

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

3

 Jan

756

Aug 46

7

7

7

Consuls: L. Aelius L.f. Lamia; M. Servilius M.f.

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

40

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

195.3

23

 Elu

 Aug

3764

 Tis

 Sep

34

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

4

 Jan

757

Aug 47

8

8

8

Consuls: Sex. Aelius Q.f. Catus; C. Sentius C.f. Saturninus

 Feb

 Nis

 Mar

 Iya

 Apr

41

 Siv

 May

 Jun

 Jul

195.4

24

 Elu

 Aug

3765

 Tis

 Sep

35

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

5

 Jan

758

Aug 48

9

9

9

Consuls: L. Valerius Potiti f. Messalla Volesus; Cn. Cornelius L.f. Cinna Magnus

 Feb

 Ad2

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

42

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

196.1

 Aug

25

 Elu

 Sep

36

3766

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

6

 Jan

759

Aug 49

10

10

10

Consuls: M. Aernilius Paulli f. Lepidus; L. Arruntius L.f.
Herod Archelaus banished to Vienna in his 9th year (Wars 2.7.3)

 Feb

 Nis

 Mar

 Iya

 Apr

43

 Siv

 May

 Tam

Herod Archelaus  banished to Vienna in his 10th year (Ant. 17.13.2 which Dio dates to 759 A.U.C. (Dio Rome 55.25.1, 55.27.6)

 Jun

 Av

 Jul

196.2

26

 Elu

 Aug

3767

 Tis

 Sep

37

Quirinius [Cyrenius] arrives in Syria to take census and liquidate Archelaus' property; Joazar son of Boethus is high priest again (Ant. 18.1.1); completes liquidation of Archelaus' property and taxation in 37th year of Actium (Ant. 18.2.1)

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

7

 Jan

760

Aug 50

11

11

Consuls: Q. Caecilius Q.f. Metellus Creticus Silanus; A. Licinius A.f. Nerva Silianus
Roman Procurator Coponius over Judea

 Feb

 Nis

 Mar

 Iya

 Apr

44

 Siv

 May

 Jun

 Jul

196.3

27

 Elu

 Aug

3768

 Tis

 Sep

38

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

8

 Jan

761

Aug 51

12

12

Consuls: M. Furius P.f. Camillus; Sex. Nonius L.f. Quinctilianus
Roman Procurator Coponius over Judea

 Feb

 Ad2

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

45

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

196.4

 Aug

28

 Elu

 Sep

39

3769

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

9

 Jan

762

Aug 52

13

13

Consuls: C. Poppaeus Q.f. Sabinus; Q. Sulpicius Q.f. Camerinus
Roman Procurator M. Ambivius over Judea

 Feb

 Nis

 Mar

 Iya

 Apr

46

 Siv

 May

 Jun

 Jul

197.1

29

 Elu

 Aug

3770

 Tis

 Sep

40

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

10

 Jan

763

Aug 53

14

14

Consuls: P. Cornelius P.f. Dolabella; C. Junius C.f. Silanus
Roman Procurator M. Ambivius over Judea

 Feb

 Ad2

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

47

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

197.2

 Aug

 Sep

41

30

 Elu

 Oct

3771

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

11

 Jan

764

Aug 54

15

15

Consuls: M'. Aemilius Q.f. Lepidus; T. Statilius T.f. Taurus
Roman Procurator M. Ambivius over Judea

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

48

 Siv

 Jul

197.3

 Aug

31

 Elu

 Sep

42

3772

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

12

 Jan

765

Aug 55









Tib 1

16

16

Consuls: Germanicus Ti.f. Caesar; C. Fonteius C.f. Capito
Roman Procurator M. Ambivius over Judea

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

49

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

197.4

 Aug

32

 Elu

 Sep

43

3773

 Tis

 Oct

Tiberius 1st inclusive factual year, co-reign Oct 23rd with Augustus30

 Nov

 Dec

13

 Jan

766

Aug 56









Tib 2

17

17

Consuls: C. Silius P.f. A. Caecina Largus; L. Munatius L.f. Plancus
Roman Procurator Annius Rufus over Judea

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

50

 Siv

 Jul

198.1

 Aug

 Sep

44

33

 Elu

 Oct

3774

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

14

 Jan

767

Aug 57

18

18

Consuls: Sex. Pompeius Sex.f; Sex. Appuleius Sex.f.
Roman Procurator Annius Rufus over Judea

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

51

 Siv

 Jul

198.2

 Aug

34

 Elu

Valerius Gratus replaces Annius Rufus as Roman Procurator over Judea
Caesar Augustus (Octavian) died Aug 19th

 Sep

45

Tib 3

3775

 Tis

Tiberius 3rd inclusive factual year, named head of state Sep 17th

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

15

 Jan

768

19

19

Consuls: Drusus Caesar; C. Nortanus Flaccus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

52

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

198.3

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Aug

35

 Elu

 Sep

46

Tib 4

3776

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

16

 Jan

769

20

20

Consuls: Sisenna Statilius Taurus; L. Scribonius Libo

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

53

 Siv

 Jul

198.4

 Aug

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

47

Tib 5

36

 Elu

 Oct

3777

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

17

 Jan

770

21

21

Consuls: L. Pomponius Flaccus; C. Caelius Rufus (or Nepos)

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

54

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

199.1

 Aug

37

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

48

Tib 6

3778

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

18

 Jan

771

22

22

Consuls: Ti. Caesar Augustus III; Germanicus Caesar II

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

55

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

199.2

 Aug

38

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

49

Tib 7

3779

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

19

 Jan

772

23

23

Consuls: M. Junius Silanus Torquatus; L. Norbanus Balbus

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

56

 Siv

 Jul

199.3

 Aug

39

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

50

Tib 8

3779

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

20

 Jan

773

24

24

Consuls: M. Valerius Messalla Messallinus; M. Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messallinus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

57

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

199.4

 Aug

40

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

51

Tib 9

3781

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

21

 Jan

774

25

25

Consuls: Ti. Caesar IV; Drusus Caesar II

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

58

 Siv

 Jul

200.1

 Aug

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

52

Tib 10

41

 Elu

 Oct

3782

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

22

 Jan

775

26

26

Consuls: D. Haterius Agrippa; C. Sulpicius Galba

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

59

 Siv

 Jul

200.2

 Aug

42

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

53

Tib11

3783

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

23

 Jan

776

27

27

Consuls: C. Asinius Pollio; C. Antistius Vetus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

60

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

200.3

 Aug

43

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

54

Tib 12

3784

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

24

 Jan

777

28

28

Consuls: Ser. Cornelius Cethegus; L. Visellius Varro

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

61

 Siv

 Jul

200.4

 Aug

44

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

55

Tib 13

3785

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

25

 Jan

778

29

29

Consuls: Cossus Cornelius Lentulus; M. Asinius Agrippa

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

62

 Siv

 Jul

201.1

 Aug

45

 Elu

Valerius Gratus Roman Procurator over Judea

 Sep

56

Tib 14

3786

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

26

 Jan

779

30

30

Consuls: Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus; C. Calvisius Sabinus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

Pontius Pilate replaces Gratus as Procurator of Judea early in 26 AD

 Apr

 Iya

 May

63

 Siv

 Jun

 Jul

201.2

 Aug

46

 Elu

 Sep

57

Tib 15

3787

 Tis

Jesus baptized at about 30 years of age  in Tiberius' 15th year, Pilate governor of Judea (Luk 3:1)

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

27

 Jan

780

31

31

Consuls: L. Calpurnius Piso; M. Licinius Crassus Frugi

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 "46 years to build Temple (ναός)"17 (John 2:20)

 May

 Iya

 Jun

64

 Siv

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

201.3

 Aug

 Sep

58

Tib 16

47

 Elu

 Oct

3788

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

28

 Jan

781

32

32

Consuls: C. Appius Iunius Silanus; P. Silius Nerva

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

65

 Siv

 Jun

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

201.4

 Aug

48

 Elu

 Sep

59

Tib 17

3789

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

29

 Jan

782

33

33

Consuls: C. Fufius Geminus; L. Rubellius Gerninus

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

66

 Siv

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

202.1

 Aug

 Sep

60

Tib 18

49

 Elu

 Oct

3790

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

30

 Jan

783

34

34

Consuls: M. Vinicius. L; Cassius Longinus

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

Jesus Christ crucified (April 5th A.D. 30 Julian) in Tiberius' 18th year

 May

 Iya

 Jun

67

 Siv

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

202.2

 Aug

50

 Elu

 Sep

61

Tib 19

3791

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

31

 Jan

784

35

35

Consuls: Ti. Caesar V; L. Aelius Seianus

 Feb

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

68

 Siv

 Jun

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

202.3

 Aug

51

 Elu

 Sep

62

Tib 20

3792

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

32

 Jan

784

36

36

Consuls: Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus; L. Arruntius (Furius) Camillus Scribonianus

 Feb

 Mar

 Ad2

 Apr

 Nis

 May

 Iya

 Jun

69

 Siv

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

202.4

 Aug

 Sep

63

Tib 21

52

 Elu

 Oct

3793

 Tis

 Nov

 Dec

33

 Jan

786

37

37

Consuls: L. Livius Ocella Sulpicius Galba. L. Cornelius Sulla Felix.

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

Jesus crucified Oly 202.4 as reported by Phlegon

 May

 Iya

 Jun

70

 Siv

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

203.1

 Aug

53

 Elu

 Sep

64

Tib 20/22

3794

 Tis

 Oct

 Hes

 Nov

 Kis

 Dec

 Tev

34

 Jan

787

38

38

 She

Consuls: Paullus Fabius Persicus. L. Vitellius.
Herod Philip dies after reigning 37 years in Tiberius' 20th or 22nd year (Ant. 18.4.6) while Vitellius was consul (Ant. 18.4.5) in A.U.C. 787.31

 Feb

 Ada

 Mar

 Nis

 Apr

 Iya

 May

71

 Siv

 Jun

 Tam

Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jul

203.2

 Av

 Aug

54

 Elu

 Sep

65

Tib 23

3795

 Tis

 Oct

 Nov

 Dec

35

 Jan

788

39

Consuls: C. Cestius Gallus. M. Servilius Nonianus.

 Feb

 Mar

 Apr

 Nis

Tiberius entrusts entire eastern policy to Vitellius (Annals 6.32)

 May

 Iya

Vitellius 1st summer campaign against Artabanus & Parthians (Annals 6:38) Pontius Pilate Roman Procurator over Judea

 Jun

72